submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]
1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?
2. Bitcoin’s core featuresFor a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.
Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) modelA UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
Nakamoto consensusIn the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.
Block productionThe Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.
Block time and mining difficultyBlock time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.
What are orphan blocks?In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.
3. Bitcoin’s additional features
Segregated Witness (SegWit)Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.
Lightning NetworkLightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.
Schnorr Signature upgrade proposalElliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.
4. Economics and supply distributionThe Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
submitted by Floris-Jan to aelfofficial [link] [comments]
Airdrops are so 2017, free money was fun while it lasted but now when someone says free money in crypto, the first thoughts are scams and ponzi schemes. But in 2020, there is a way to earn free money, in a legitimate, common practice, and logical manner — staking.
Staking is the core concept behind the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus protocol that is quickly becoming an industry standard throughout blockchain projects. PoS allows blockchains to scale effectively without compromising on security and resource efficiency. Projects that incorporate staking include aelf, Dash, EOS, Cosmos, Cardano, Dfinity and many others.
PoW — Why changeFirst, let’s look at some of the issues facing Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus that led to the development of PoS.
Consistent Fiat Injection — The majority of miners will be paying for their electricity in fiat currency. At a conservative rate of $0.1 USD per kWh, the network currently uses 73.12 TWh per year. This equates to an average daily cost of over $20 million USD. This means every day around $20 million of fiat currency is effectively being injected into the bitcoin network. Although this concept is somewhat flawed in the sense that the same amount of bitcoin will be released each day regardless of how much is spent on electricity, I’m looking at this from the eyes of the miners, they are reducing their fiat bags and increasing their bitcoin bags. This change of bags is the essence of this point which will inevitably encourage crypto spending. If the bitcoin bags were increased but fiat bags did not decrease, then there would be less incentive to spend the bitcoin, as would see in a staking ecosystem.
PoS VariationsDifferent approaches have been taken to tackle different issues the PoS protocol faces. Will Little has an excellent article explaining this and more in PoS, but let me take an excerpt from his piece to go through them:
Earning Your StakeIn order to understand how one can earn money from these networks, I’ll break them down into 3 categories: Simple staking, Running nodes, and Voting.
Simple Staking - This is the simplest of the 3 methods and requires almost no action by the user. Certain networks will reward users by simply holding tokens in a specified wallet. These rewards are generally minimal but are the easiest way to earn.
Running a node - This method provides the greatest rewards but also requires the greatest action by the user and most likely will require ongoing maintenance. Generally speaking, networks will require nodes to stake a certain amount of tokens often amounting to thousands of dollars. In DPoS systems, these nodes must be voted in by other users on the network and must continue to provide confidence to their supporters. Some companies will setup nodes and allow users to participate by contributing to the minimum staking amount, with a similar concept to PoW mining pools.
Voting - This mechanism works hand in hand with running nodes in relation to DPoS networks. Users are encouraged to vote for their preferred nodes by staking tokens as votes. Each vote will unlock a small amount of rewards for each voter, the nodes are normally the ones to provide these rewards as a portion of their own reward for running a node.
Aelf’s DPoS systemThe aelf consensus protocol utilizes a form of DPoS. There are two versions of nodes on the network, active nodes & backup nodes (official names yet to be announced). Active nodes run the network and produce the blocks, while the backup nodes complete minor tasks and are on standby should any active nodes go offline or act maliciously. These nodes are selected based upon their number of votes received. Initially the top 17 nodes will be selected as active nodes, while the next 100 will stand as the backup ones, each voting period each node may change position should they receive more or less votes than the previous period. In order to be considered as a node, one must stake a minimum amount of ELF tokens (yet to be announced).
In order to participate as a voter, there is no minimum amount of tokens to be staked. When one stakes, their tokens will be locked for a designated amount of time, selected by the voter from the preset periods. If users pull their tokens out before this locked period has expired no rewards are received, but if they leave them locked for the entire time frame they will receive the set reward, and the tokens will be automatically rolled over into the next locked period. As a result, should a voter decide, once their votes are cast, they can continue to receive rewards without any further action needed.
Many projects have tackled with node rewards in order to make them fair, well incentivized but sustainable for everyone involved. Aelf has come up with a reward structure based on multiple variables with a basic income guaranteed for every node. Variables may include the number of re-elections, number of votes received, or other elements.
As the system matures, the number of active nodes will be increased, resulting in a more diverse and secure network.
Staking as a solution is a win-win-win for network creators, users and investors. It is a much more resource efficient and scalable protocol to secure blockchain networks while reducing the entry point for users to earn from the system.
Yes. You pick a peer and after some setup, create a bitcoin transaction to fund the lightning channel; it’ll then take another transaction to close it and release your funds. You and your peer always hold a bitcoin transaction to get your funds whenever you want: just broadcast to the blockchain like normal. In other words, you and your peer create a shared account, and then use Lightning to securely negotiate who gets how much from that shared account, without waiting for the bitcoin blockchain.
Yes, Lightning is open source. Anyone can review the code (in the same way as the bitcoin code)
Similar to the bitcoin network, no one will ever own or control the Lightning Network. The code is open source and free for anyone to download and review. Anyone can run a node and be part of the network.
No, your bitcoin will never leave the blockchain. Instead your bitcoin will be held in a multi-signature address as long as your channel stays open. When the channel is closed; the final transaction will be added to the blockchain. “Off-chain” is not a perfect term, but it is used due to the fact that the transfer of ownership is no longer reflected on the blockchain until the channel is closed.
Example: A and B have a channel. 1 BTC each. A sends B 0.5 BTC. B sends back 0.25 BTC. Balance should be A = 0.75, B = 1.25. If A gets disconnected, B can publish the first Tx where the balance was A = 0.5 and B = 1.5. If the node B does in fact attempt to cheat by publishing an old state (such as the A=0.5 and B=1.5 state), this cheat can then be detected on-chain and used to steal the cheaters funds, i.e., A can see the closing transaction, notice it's an old one and grab all funds in the channel (A=2, B=0). The time that A has in order to react to the cheating counterparty is given by the CheckLockTimeVerify (CLTV) in the cheating transaction, which is adjustable. So if A foresees that it'll be able to check in about once every 24 hours it'll require that the CLTV is at least that large, if it's once a week then that's fine too. You definitely do not need to be online and watching the chain 24/7, just make sure to check in once in a while before the CLTV expires. Alternatively you can outsource the watch duties, in order to keep the CLTV timeouts low. This can be achieved both with trusted third parties or untrusted ones (watchtowers). In the case of a unilateral close, e.g., you just go offline and never come back, the other endpoint will have to wait for that timeout to expire to get its funds back. So peers might not accept channels with extremely high CLTV timeouts. -- Source
Tiny payments are possible: since fees are proportional to the payment amount, you can pay a fraction of a cent; accounting is even done in thousandths of a satoshi. Payments are settled instantly: the money is sent in the time it takes to cross the network to your destination and back, typically a fraction of a second.
Yes, but not in theory. You could make a poorer lightning network without it, which has higher risks when establishing channels (you might have to wait a month if things go wrong!), has limited channel lifetime, longer minimum payment expiry times on each hop, is less efficient and has less robust outsourcing. The entire spec as written today assumes segregated witness, as it solves all these problems.
No, for now. For the first version of the protocol, if you wanted to send a normal bitcoin transaction using your channel, you have to close it, send the funds, then reopen the channel (3 transactions). In future versions, you and your peer would agree to spend out of your lightning channel funds just like a normal bitcoin payment, allowing you to use your lightning wallet like a normal bitcoin wallet.
Not really. Anyone can set up a node, and so it’s a race to the bottom on fees. In practice, we may see the network use a nominal fee and not change very much, which only provides an incremental incentive to route on a node you’re going to use yourself, and not enough to run one merely for fees. Having clients use criteria other than fees (e.g. randomness, diversity) in route selection will also help this.
Lightning is already being tested on the Mainnet Twitter Link but as for a specific date, Jameson Lopp says it best
Nope, because there is no custody ever involved. It's just like forwarding packets. -- Source
Furthermore, the Lightning Network scales not with the transaction throughput of the underlying blockchain, but with modern data processing and latency limits - payments can be made nearly as quickly as packets can be sent. -- Source
Each exchange will get to decide and need to implement the software into their system, but some ideas have been outlined here: Google Doc - Lightning Exchanges
Note that by virtue of the usual benefits of cost-less, instantaneous transactions, lightning will make arbitrage between exchanges much more efficient and thus lead to consistent pricing across exchange that adopt it. -- Source
According to Rusty's calculations we should be able to store 1 million nodes in about 100 MB, so that should work even for mobile phones. Beyond that we have some proposals ready to lighten the load on endpoints, but we'll cross that bridge when we get there. -- Source
No you'd remember the information from the last time you started the app and only sync the differences. This is not yet implemented, but it shouldn't be too hard to get a preliminary protocol working if that turns out to be a problem. -- Source
Lightning is based on participants in the network running lightning node software that enables them to interact with other nodes. This does not require being a full bitcoin node, but you will have to run "lnd", "eclair", or one of the other node softwares listed above.
All lightning wallets have node software integrated into them, because that is necessary to create payment channels and conduct payments on the network, but you can also intentionally run lnd or similar for public benefit - e.g. you can hold open payment channels or channels with higher volume, than you need for your own transactions. You would be compensated in modest fees by those who transact across your node with multi-hop payments. -- Source
Sure, you can help write up educational material. You can learn and read more about the tech at http://dev.lightning.community/resources. You can test the various desktop and mobile apps out there (Lightning Desktop, Zap, Eclair apps). -- Source
No -- Source
lit doesn't depend on having your own full node -- it automatically connects to full nodes on the network. -- Source
LND uses a light client mode, so it doesn't require a full node. The name of the light client it uses is called neutrino
Upon opening a channel, the two endpoints first agree on a reserve value, below which the channel balance may not drop. This is to make sure that both endpoints always have some skin in the game as rustyreddit puts it :-)
For a cheat to become worth it, the opponent has to be absolutely sure that you cannot retaliate against him during the timeout. So he has to make sure you never ever get network connectivity during that time. Having someone else also watching for channel closures and notifying you, or releasing a canned retaliation, makes this even harder for the attacker. This is because if he misjudged you being truly offline you can retaliate by grabbing all of its funds. Spotty connections, DDoS, and similar will not provide the attacker the necessary guarantees to make cheating worthwhile. Any form of uncertainty about your online status acts as a deterrent to the other endpoint. -- Source
You typically want to have more than one channel open at any given time for redundancy's sake. And we imagine open and close will probably be automated for the most part. In fact we already have a feature in LND called autopilot that can automatically open channels for a user.
Frequency will depend whether the funds are needed on-chain or more useful on LN. -- Source
You don't really set up a "node" in the sense that anyone with more than one channel can automatically be a node and route payments. Fees on LN can be set by the node, and can change dynamically on the network. -- Source
Yes but it has to be implemented in the Lightning software being used. -- Source
You won't have to do anything. With autopilot enabled, it'll automatically open and close channels based on the availability of the network. -- Source
|#||Game||Description||Channels||Status||Should I Join?|
|1.||Cryptokitties||Pioneer in blockchain gaming. Currently has biggest auditory and market turnover per day. But since no new functionality has been added by developers(you could only breed, buy and sell), market is dropping prices each day. Hard to enter for newbies and earn something. On other hand has interesting science side to breed new cats. Honestly think it will be one of the longest projects, however it is hard earn there right now, HODLers very rare cats might win at the end of 2018(Gen0 cats will no appear). It is just very short description about project, more details coming soon. With current prices and price of breeding there are very little kittyfans right now||Twitter Reddit Discord||Released||promising|
|2.||Etheremon||One of the most potentially best blockchain games with battle mechanic(will be working from 8th Jan but is already implemented in smart contracts) and design looks like Pokemons. Started as ponzi-like scheme, but developers turned it into amazing solution as gen0 holders which might moon just in next few weeks. Those who hadn't returned their ROI received eggs which will turn into additional gen0 mons. Moreover project leader nakasatoshi has opened weekly thread about current status and seems to be very positive and hardworking guy. Personally I'm very excited about Etheremons and waiting starting trade/lease/battle functionality. Project spend 0(ZERO) dollars on marketing and have already huge community.||Medium Twitter Reddit Discord(NO) Deviantart||Beta||Promising|
|3||CryptoPets||Another cool projects with solid White Paper and smart contracts which will start very soon. Early adopters are already defined(1500 persons), but still project has very big potential. I'm recommending subscribe to their channels and start playing as soon as they'll start, should be very good. They have announced cooperation with Decentraland||Twitter Discord WhitePaper Reddit||Whitepaper||Promising|
|4||EtherArmy||Previously EtherTanks. Official SCAM||Telegram||Beta Ponzi||Scam|
|5||Pandarium||Promising game to be released very soon, with unique competition system. Highly recommend to subscribe.||Twitter Facebook Discord||Announced||Promising|
|7||Fishbank||Collecting userbase via referral system. After 3 referrals you're going get 1 x Common Fish, after 15 - 1 Rare Fish, 100 - Legendary, 1000 - Epic. Release of Alpha is planned january 18th.||Telegram Twitter Discord WhitePaper||Whitepaper||Maybe|
|8||CryptoPunks||Oldest strange project of Larva Labs, there is nothing to do just buy or cell one of 10000 punks. But game already has their own auditory||Discord||Released||Maybe|
|9||SubPrime Crypto||Upcoming project with blockchain real estate trading||Announced||Maybe|
|10||CryptoPuppies||Another pet adoption game, will be released in near future, seems to be much cuter than Cryptokitties.||Twitter Telegram Discord||Announced||Maybe|
|11||CryptoFighters||Interesting and potentially very attractive project. Join now to have possibility to win gen0 fighters which might have some good value quite soon.||Twitter Facebook Telegram||Released||Promising|
|12||HashPupies||Currently only one based not on ETH network, but on NEO. Airdrop is already finished and beta test of project is planned on early March of 2018.||Twitter Facebook Reddit Discord||Announced||Maybe|
|13||EtherRock||Totally strange project, similar to Punks but only 100 rocks. Hm ... really?!!! :)||Discord NO||Released||Maybe|
|14||Cryptodrome||Interesting project, will be starting very soon, now with Horses, not only siring/breeding, but competition game, where you can compete in horseracing with your own champion and win Ethers. Join now to get chance win Gen 0.||Telegram||Announced||Promising|
|15||Parsec Frontiers||Absolutely another subject (no more pets) of blockchain but seems very perspective - space economic strategy, ICO has not been started, so if you're interested, try to rush into whitelist.||Twitter Facebook Medium Discord Reddit Whitepaper||Whitepaper||Promising|
|16||Decentraland||Not a game originally but based on their own cryptocurrency MANA and will join blockchain with AR. Had finished parcels sale||Whitepaper Twitter Reddit||Whitepaper||Promising|
|17||Nova Blitz||Potentially one of the hugest TCG on blockchain. They're are starting initial coin sell in couple of hours. Whitepaper looks very solid at least right now. Only one project with user agreement during buying tokens.||Telegram BitcoinTalk Whitepaper||Whitepaper||Promising|
|18||Pray 4 Prey||Don't know if it is true game, or just a gambling one, cause no rules and FAQs working on site. It seems the mechanics is as follows: you buy a fish, it stays in aquarium until some shark attacks (1 time per 24 hrs?), if your fish survives it gains additional ether in its price.||Twitter Reddit||Beta||Not really|
|19||CryptoMons||Looks like TCG battle game. I like the design, let's see what shall it be.||Telegram||Beta||Maybe|
|20||Realms of Ether||8-bit blockchain game. The game is promissing however more information on rules is needed. Believe me, there are oldschool gamers which will be fans of it.||BitcoinTalk||Beta||Maybe|
|21||Puppy Planet||No info currently, just follow twitter to get some free stuff.||Announced||Maybe|
|22||Tron Dogs||Site is currently without English customization, but dogs look amazing (similar to cryptokitties). Could be next hype, but based on TRON network.||Beta||Maybe|
|23||Ether Racing||Official SCAM||Gmail||Beta Ponzi||Scam|
|24||Kryptowars||Totally new project, with at least some working mechanics, only 100 armies exists, you are selecting country and try to get more wins.||Internal Blog||Released||Maybe|
|25||CryptoStamps||Interesting project from small San Francisco team with collectible stamps. Subscribe to their channel and get chance win Initial Stamp||Twitter Facebook Reddit||Released||Promising|
|26||Etherions||New project with 3D Web-GL browser graphics with which looks like not bad as for start||Reddit Discord||Beta||Maybe|
|27||Steam Punk||The first MMORPG announced on blockhain, check wheir whitepaper if you're interested||Discord Whitepaper||Whitepaper||Maybe|
|28||Mooncat Rescue||Another 8-bit project, now with kitties||Beta||Maybe|
|29||Etherpoly||Monopoly game on Ether network? Why not||No||Announced||Maybe|
|30||Own A Number||Selling numbers on Eth network, what's next?||Beta||Not really|
|31||Crypto Battle||Start of project has been postponed due to developing smart contract, developers had redunf to all persons who had bought monster and didnt know about smart contract absence. Seems pretty fair. Gen0 sales will start on Jan 09||Gmail||Announced||Maybe|
|32||SnapCity||SnapCity is the latest geo-location adventure game built on the blockchain and coming to Android and iOS soon.||Reddit Telegram Whitepaper||Whitepaper||Maybe|
|33||Costume||First Play-to-Earn Blockchain Based MMO Video-Game with a Self-Sustaining Economic Loop||Twitter Facebook Medium||Whitepaper||Promising|
|34||Crypto Zombies||Actually not a game in commons sense, is a free, interactive code school that teaches you to build games on Ethereum.||Released||Promising|
|35||Ledger Legends||Brand new game in style of Heartstone, very early beta now||Discord||Beta||Promising|
|36||EthBabies||Censored version of Crypto-pussies from the same author, now with lingerie on, currently nothing to do excepet breeding||Discord||Beta||Maybe|
|37||CryptoHunt||A healthy and educational augmented reality game with earning potential||Twitter Discord Telegram Whitepaper||Whitepaper||Maybe|
|38||CryptoBots||Another Cryptokitties clone with nothing to do, just buy and breed||No||Beta||Not really|
|39||EtherSpace||EtherTanks-like ponzi cryptogame now in space||Beta Ponzi||Not really|
|40||EtherCraft||First 8-bit blockchain RPG. Contains ponzi scheme, but provides free items as well. Might be interesting.||Twitter Telegram Discord Reddit Medium||Beta Ponzi||Promising|
|41||EtherRacing||Yeah, you don't mix-up, another ponzi game with same! name||Twitter Discord Reddit||Beta Ponzi||Scam|
|42||EtherRocket||Brand new space game with working space rockets missions - you have to reach certain planet. Seems quite fresh and finally some with working functionality||Beta||Not Really|
|43||CryptoCelebrities||Simple collectible game, where you could buy token with your favourite celebrity (only 1 token of each celebrity exists). You're owner of token until someone decides double your price (so you'll get x2 you'd paid)||Twitter Facebook Instagram||Beta||Scam|
|44||EtherTulips||Currently only buy seeds and get flowers with certain probability: Very Common (50.9%), Common (20.5%), Uncommon (12.7%), Rare (6.4%), Very Rare(3.2%), Epic (0.8%), Legendary (0.4%), and an exceedingly exclusive Secret Tulip (0.1%)!||Twitter Reddit Medium||Beta||Scam|
|45||CryptoAlpaka||Decentralized pet-rising crypto game with rewards||Twitter Telegram Medium||Announced||Maybe|
|46||Etherbots||Interesting idea, constructor-like robots war on blockchain, will be more details after official launch||Twitter Reddit Discord Medium||Beta||Promising|
|47||EtherLambos||1st producer of digital high-end luxury vehicles on the Ethereum blockchain. Etherlambos are tokens of craftsmanship dedicated to collect the desire of people to possess unique items of value. Etherlambos can be collected, traded, and tuned. All Etherlambos come in a limited edition.||Twitter Facebook Reddit||Beta||Maybe|
|48||Beyond the Void Description||Beyond the Void is a 1v1 MOBA game with decisive features from RTS games. The gameplay is a unique mix of genres. It takes place in a universe of sci-fi and fantasy. It’s powered by blockchain as the in-game items are available to purchase only in Nexium (NXC) - the dedicated cryptocurrency. The objective is to offer a new game experience for players as they will truly own their in-game items, be able to use their cross-gaming items in feature Nexarium games and, to trade or sell them on the Beyond the Void’s shop||Twitter Facebook Discord||Early Access||Promising|
|49||Cryptosaga||New decentralized RPG from Korean development studio with amazing animation and very promising gameplay||Twitter Discord Medium||Presale||Promising|
|50||CryptoCountries||CryptoCelebrities - like game, at least for now. Developers promised add gaming elements and not just trading. As for now it is not recommended for newbies, as you could stuck with expensive country card||Discord Twitter Facebook Medium||Beta||Promising|
|51||Ether Dungeon||Ether Dungeon is a real ethereum blockchain based game in which players can explore the depth of dungeons, collecting & upgrading epic heroes, powerful items, challenge fierce enemies, and finally become the Dungeon Master!||Discord Twitter Reddit Medium||Beta||Maybe|
|52||ÐWorld||ÐWorld is a game centered around owning and trading parts of the world. We call them plots. Each plot is owned by you: no one else can claim it or take it from you, unless they pay you more than you did. You can customize your plots for everyone to see.||Discord||Beta||Maybe|
|53||Cryptocities.net||Cryptocities - brand new blockchain game with possibility to discover new cities each 12-14 hours, and sell/rent them. Aim is to discover most valuable cities. More details could be found on site or on Discord. I like their idea and 'no rushing' cooldown before each new action. Long term project for sure||Discord||Beta||Promising|
|54||Dragonereum||Built on Ethereum blockchain, Dragonereum is a cryptocollectible player vs. player game, allowing users to collect, breed and battle unique dragons. As for me project seems to be very promising with very cool design and idea.||Telegram Twitter Facebook Discord Whitepaper||Beta||Promising|
|55||Augmentors||Augmentors Game will be for all mobile devices when launching in Q4 2018. The game features Augmented Reality. The creatures are AR and can battle anywhere in the world. There are collectible Creature that are in limited supply as they were part of the ICO nearly a year ago. These creatures are unlike most games seen today, you can use them in real battles in real AR all over the world.||Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Telegram Medium Reddit||Announced||Promising|
|56||KimJongCrypto||CryptoPunks like collectibles developed by BushidoLab, with really fun design, I was laughing a lot when saw this first time. If you're loved with collecting you should try it for sure||Facebook Twitter||Beta||Maybe|
|57||CryptoLandmarks||Collect unique cards, which represent real recognizable natural or artificial landmark existing on our planet. There is only one card of each landmark.||Facebook Twitter Discord||Released||Maybe|
|58||CryptoArts||CryptoArts is a Blockchain based Virtual Gallery where players can invest into masterpieces and earn, art lovers can browse virtual gallery via mobile app in AVR. Galleries and individual artists can host exhibitions. Very ambitious and promising project. I really like and idea!||Twitter Discord||Beta||Promising|
|59||Cryptociti.es||It is blockchain place where you could buy and trade your own Cryptocity. Countries, Continents and Subcontinents are ongoing.||Discord Reddit Twitter Facebook||Beta||Maybe|
|60||Cryptopoliticians||CryptoPoliticians is a game that allows anyone to own and trade one-of-a-kind politicians. Buy politicians and play politics with other politicians around the world.||Discord||Beta||Scam|
|61||EtherQuest||New fantasy game with RPG elements where you can battle your heroes against other players on arena or challenge on big tournament. Current prices for arena battles are high, but overall concept and design is very good||Discord Twitter Telegram Medium||Beta||Maybe|
|62||Rabona||New promising and first on blockchain Football Manager. Join a team or create your own, play together with friends in the pursuit to climb the top and claim the biggest share. Train your own champions and sell them for Ether or enroll them to your own dream team!||Reddit Twitter Medium Instagram Telegram||Released||Maybe|
|63||Infect the World||Pandemic reborn on blockchain. Funny viruses mutation game with pyramid scheme. Create your own virus and try to infect as much as possible people. Read FAQ carefully to understand how to play properly||BitcoinTalk||Beta||Not really|
|64||Etherwaifu||Etherwaifu (do not mix up with scam Ethwaifus) is fresh crafting collectible game with amazing artworks from two raising talents Jubi and Agro. Each of this fantastic artwork has thousands of unique variations, and you can craft a new one by combining traits of other artworks you own. See the magic yourself.||Discord Twitter Reddit Telegram Medium Contract||Beta||Promising|
"third party needs to possess the necessary capital to process the transaction. If Alice and Bob do not have an open channel, and Alice wants to send Bob .5 BTC, they'll both need to be connected to a third party (or a series of 3rd parties). Say if Charles (the third party) only possesses .4 BTC in his respective payment channels with the other users, the transaction will not be able to go through that route. The longer the route, the more likely that a third party does not possess the requisite amount of BTC, thereby making it a useless connection.”CENTRALIZATION
“…applicability of the regulations … to persons creating, obtaining, distributing, exchanging, accepting, or transmitting virtual currencies.”FinCEN’s regulations for IVTS:
“…an administrator or exchanger is an MSB under FinCEN's regulations, specifically, a money transmitter…”
"An administrator or exchanger that (1) accepts and transmits a convertible virtual currency or (2) buys or sells convertible virtual currency for any reason is a money transmitter under FinCEN's regulations…”
"FinCEN's regulations define the term "money transmitter" as a person that provides money transmission services, or any other person engaged in the transfer of funds. The term "money transmission services" means "the acceptance of currency, funds, or other value that substitutes for currency from one person and the transmission of currency, funds, or other value that substitutes for currency to another location or person by any means.””
"The definition of a money transmitter does not differentiate between real currencies and convertible virtual currencies.”
"An “informal value transfer system” refers to any system, mechanism, or network of people that receives money for the purpose of making the funds or an equivalent value payable to a third party in another geographic location, whether or not in the same form.”Mike Caldwell used to accept and mail bitcoins. Customers sent him bitcoins and he mailed physical bitcoins back or to a designated recipient. There is no exchange from one type of currency to another. FinCEN told him that he needed to be licensed as money transmitter, after which Caldwell stopped mailing out bitcoins.
“…IVTS… must comply with all BSA registration, recordkeeping, reporting and AML program requirements.
“Money transmitting” occurs when funds are transferred on behalf of the public by any and all means including, but not limited to, transfers within the United States or to locations abroad…regulations require all money transmitting businesses…to register with FinCEN."
"Subsequent administrative rulings clarified several remaining ambiguities: miners are not money transmitters…"FinCEN Declares Bitcoin Miners, Investors Aren't Money Transmitters
"fixing malleability and enabling Layer 2 solutions will happen”However, it is questionable if layer 2 will work or is needed.
Request PDF | 51% Attacks on Cryptocurrencies: A Case Study | Since 2008, when Satoshi Nakamoto proposed an electronic cash system (Bitcoin) that is completely realized by peer-to-peer technology This page describes the behavior of the reference client.The Bitcoin protocol is specified by the behavior of the reference client, not by this page. In particular, while this page is quite complete in describing the network protocol, it does not attempt to list all of the rules for block or transaction validity.. Type names used in this documentation are from the C99 standard. What is 51% attack? A “51% attack” means a bad guy getting as much computing power as the entire rest of the Bitcoin network combined, plus a little bit more. In his white paper Satoshi proposed proof-of-work. The main purpose of this algorithm is to minimize 51% attacks. However proof of work does not completely eliminate the 51% attack. Bitcoin’s difficulty only adjusts every 2,016 blocks • The attacker has 51% of the mining power whereas other miners have only 49% • This means that the attacker will be able to add blocks faster than rest of miners • Eventually, attacker will have one extra block than the rest: Hash Power Required for 51% Attack Gap miners are mining at Evolution of the Mining Gap 500000 Block Number Evolution of the Mining Gap Now (373960) 500000 Bitcoin wiki, Mining hardware comparison 01/07/11 01/01/12 01/07/12 01/01/13 01/01/14 01/07/14 01/01/15 01/07/15 10000 1000 01/07/11 01/01/12 Evolution of Mining
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In this video, I will be explaining one of the main reason why it took so long for CryptoCurrency to become a part of our lives. I will be addressing the issue of double spending. There are 3 main ... Cybersecurity is the combination of processes, practices, and technologies designed to protect networks, computers, programs, data and information from attack, damage or unauthorized access. There is no greater point of weakness in Bitcoin than a 51% attack. A fifty-one percent attack can shut down the network. This video discusses all the attack vectors available to an attacker. The Real Stories Of Area 51 You Need to Know Before Sept 20th - Duration: 12:04. TheBinger 1,139,892 views. 12:04. TIMELAPSE OF THE FUTURE: A Journey to the End of Time (4K) ... Will Bitcoin Keep Crashing? 51% Attack - Programmer explains - Duration: 33:11. Ivan on Tech 90,868 views. 33:11. BITCOIN CRASH 2018 EXPLAINED IN DETAIL - Duration: 19:12.