Bitcoin Wallet | Store Bitcoin Cash (BCH) & Bitcoin (BTC)

🎄 🎅 GamerMine.com Christmas Giveaway | $200 ($10 x 20) Amazon.com Gift Cards + Offer Boosters!

🎅 GamerMine.com is doing a $200 Amazon.com Gift Card giveaway + Offer Booster giveaway!

Prizes:

 
📍 - About GamerMine:
 
GamerMine is a GPT site founded in January of 2017 that values the experience of our users. With over $70,000 USD paid out to our users over 13,000 withdrawals, we've earned the trust of many members of the beermoney community.
 
By becoming a user, you're taking part in a growing community that's been active for close to 2 years. With over 10 offer providers, 3 video providers, daily login bonuses that scale with your earnings, instant withdrawals and signup bonuses, we offer a platform that rewards YOU for being a long term, loyal user.
 
📍 - What GamerMine Does Different:
 
‌• Daily bonus that scales with your level. More earnings, higher daily free!
‌• Free boosters on signup, activate whenever you want to temporarily boost your offer earnings.
‌• Over 13 offevideo providers to maximize your earnings.
‌• Daily/Monthly leaderboard that auto-rewards the highest earners in the period.
‌• Dice minigame (1% edge)
‌• Coin Flip PvP minigame (1% fee)
‌• A support team that cares, under 24 hour response time guaranteed.
‌• We offer the standard conversion rate of: 1,000 gold = $1.00 USD.
 
📍 - Withdrawal Methods:
 
Method Minimum ($ USD) Fee ($ USD)
PayPal $0.50 $0.25
Bitcoin $3.00 $0.18
Ethereum $1.00 $0.07
OPSkins $0.01 FREE
Gift Cards Coming Soon! Coming Soon!
 

❄️ GET STARTED FOR FREE HERE ❄️

 

Requirements:

You must have posted in /beermoney prior to today and within the last 12 months. Click here to check your recent activity. Removed posts/comments, giveaway entries, referral chains, and other low effort or off topic posts/comments do not qualify.

Giveaway ends on December 29, 2019

 
 

Leave a top level comment below to enter this giveaway!

Winners are chosen randomly with a script that was written for our giveaways and verified by our mods. After the giveaway ends, a new post will be made naming the winners for this giveaway. Stickying and posting this giveaway does not indicate endorsement or any affiliation with the above mentioned company.
 
Note: The moderators do not benefit in any way from this giveaway. This is all for you guys.
submitted by Threw_it_to_ground to beermoney [link] [comments]

🎁 GamerMine.com Giveaway | $50 ($10 x 5) Amazon.com Gift Cards!

🎀 GamerMine.com is doing a $50 Amazon.com Gift Card giveaway!

Prizes:

 
📍 - About GamerMine:
 
GamerMine is a GPT site founded in January of 2017 that values the experience of our users. With over $50,000 USD paid out to our users over 8,500 withdrawals, we've earned the trust of many members of the beermoney community.
 
By becoming a user, you're taking part in a growing community that's been active for close to 2 years. With over 10 offer providers, 3 video providers, daily login bonuses that scale with your earnings, instant withdrawals and signup bonuses, we offer a platform that rewards YOU for being a long term, loyal user.
 
📍 - What GamerMine Does Different:
 
‌• Free boosters on signup, activate whenever you want to temporarily boost your offer earnings.
‌• Daily login reward that scales with your level, more earnings, higher daily free!
‌• Over 13 offevideo providers to maximize your earnings.
‌• Daily/Monthly leaderboard that auto-rewards the highest earners in the period.
‌• Dice minigame (1% edge)
‌• Coin Flip PvP minigame (1% fee)
‌• A support team that cares, under 24 hour response time guaranteed.
‌• We offer the standard conversion rate of: 1,000 gold = $1.00 USD.
 
📍 - Withdrawal Methods:
 
Method Minimum ($ USD) Fee ($ USD)
OPSkins $0.01 FREE
PayPal $0.50 $0.25
Bitcoin $3.00 $0.35
Ethereum $1.00 $0.10
Gift Cards Coming Soon! Coming Soon!
 

👉 GET STARTED FOR FREE HERE 👈

 

Requirements:

You must have posted in /beermoney prior to today and within the last 12 months. Click here to check your recent activity. Removed posts/comments, giveaway entries, referral chains, and other low effort or off topic posts/comments do not qualify. These are the minimum requirements. If you would like to add any other ones, you are allowed to add more requirements. However, additional requirements may turn away users. Leave a top level comment below to enter the giveaway.

Giveaway ends on November 19, 11:59AM EST 2019

 
 

Leave a top level comment below to enter this giveaway!

Winners are chosen randomly with a script that was written for our giveaways and verified by our mods. After the giveaway ends, a new post will be made naming the winners for this giveaway. Stickying and posting this giveaway does not indicate endorsement or any affiliation with the above mentioned company.
 
Note: The moderators do not benefit in any way from this giveaway. This is all for you guys.
submitted by Threw_it_to_ground to beermoney [link] [comments]

FlowCards: A Declarative Framework for Development of Ergo dApps

FlowCards: A Declarative Framework for Development of Ergo dApps
Introduction
ErgoScript is the smart contract language used by the Ergo blockchain. While it has concise syntax adopted from Scala/Kotlin, it still may seem confusing at first because conceptually ErgoScript is quite different compared to conventional languages which we all know and love. This is because Ergo is a UTXO based blockchain, whereas smart contracts are traditionally associated with account based systems like Ethereum. However, Ergo's transaction model has many advantages over the account based model and with the right approach it can even be significantly easier to develop Ergo contracts than to write and debug Solidity code.
Below we will cover the key aspects of the Ergo contract model which makes it different:
Paradigm
The account model of Ethereum is imperative. This means that the typical task of sending coins from Alice to Bob requires changing the balances in storage as a series of operations. Ergo's UTXO based programming model on the other hand is declarative. ErgoScript contracts specify conditions for a transaction to be accepted by the blockchain (not changes to be made in the storage state as result of the contract execution).
Scalability
In the account model of Ethereum both storage changes and validity checks are performed on-chain during code execution. In contrast, Ergo transactions are created off-chain and only validation checks are performed on-chain thus reducing the amount of operations performed by every node on the network. In addition, due to immutability of the transaction graph, various optimization strategies are possible to improve throughput of transactions per second in the network. Light verifying nodes are also possible thus further facilitating scalability and accessibility of the network.
Shared state
The account-based model is reliant on shared mutable state which is known to lead to complex semantics (and subtle million dollar bugs) in the context of concurrent/ distributed computation. Ergo's model is based on an immutable graph of transactions. This approach, inherited from Bitcoin, plays well with the concurrent and distributed nature of blockchains and facilitates light trustless clients.
Expressive Power
Ethereum advocated execution of a turing-complete language on the blockchain. It theoretically promised unlimited potential, however in practice severe limitations came to light from excessive blockchain bloat, subtle multi-million dollar bugs, gas costs which limit contract complexity, and other such problems. Ergo on the flip side extends UTXO to enable turing-completeness while limiting the complexity of the ErgoScript language itself. The same expressive power is achieved in a different and more semantically sound way.
With the all of the above points, it should be clear that there are a lot of benefits to the model Ergo is using. In the rest of this article I will introduce you to the concept of FlowCards - a dApp developer component which allows for designing complex Ergo contracts in a declarative and visual way.
From Imperative to Declarative
In the imperative programming model of Ethereum a transaction is a sequence of operations executed by the Ethereum VM. The following Solidity function implements a transfer of tokens from sender to receiver . The transaction starts when sender calls this function on an instance of a contract and ends when the function returns.
// Sends an amount of existing coins from any caller to an address function send(address receiver, uint amount) public { require(amount <= balances[msg.sender], "Insufficient balance."); balances[msg.sender] -= amount; balances[receiver] += amount; emit Sent(msg.sender, receiver, amount); } 
The function first checks the pre-conditions, then updates the storage (i.e. balances) and finally publishes the post-condition as the Sent event. The gas which is consumed by the transaction is sent to the miner as a reward for executing this transaction.
Unlike Ethereum, a transaction in Ergo is a data structure holding a list of input coins which it spends and a list of output coins which it creates preserving the total balances of ERGs and tokens (in which Ergo is similar to Bitcoin).
Turning back to the example above, since Ergo natively supports tokens, therefore for this specific example of sending tokens we don't need to write any code in ErgoScript. Instead we need to create the ‘send’ transaction shown in the following figure, which describes the same token transfer but declaratively.
https://preview.redd.it/id5kjdgn9tv41.png?width=1348&format=png&auto=webp&s=31b937d7ad0af4afe94f4d023e8c90c97c8aed2e
The picture visually describes the following steps, which the network user needs to perform:
  1. Select unspent sender's boxes, containing in total tB >= amount of tokens and B >= txFee + minErg ERGs.
  2. Create an output target box which is protected by the receiver public key with minErg ERGs and amount of T tokens.
  3. Create one fee output protected by the minerFee contract with txFee ERGs.
  4. Create one change output protected by the sender public key, containing B - minErg - txFee ERGs and tB - amount of T tokens.
  5. Create a new transaction, sign it using the sender's secret key and send to the Ergo network.
What is important to understand here is that all of these steps are preformed off-chain (for example using Appkit Transaction API) by the user's application. Ergo network nodes don't need to repeat this transaction creation process, they only need to validate the already formed transaction. ErgoScript contracts are stored in the inputs of the transaction and check spending conditions. The node executes the contracts on-chain when the transaction is validated. The transaction is valid if all of the conditions are satisfied.
Thus, in Ethereum when we “send amount from sender to recipient” we are literally editing balances and updating the storage with a concrete set of commands. This happens on-chain and thus a new transaction is also created on-chain as the result of this process.
In Ergo (as in Bitcoin) transactions are created off-chain and the network nodes only verify them. The effects of the transaction on the blockchain state is that input coins (or Boxes in Ergo's parlance) are removed and output boxes are added to the UTXO set.
In the example above we don't use an ErgoScript contract but instead assume a signature check is used as the spending pre-condition. However in more complex application scenarios we of course need to use ErgoScript which is what we are going to discuss next.
From Changing State to Checking Context
In the send function example we first checked the pre-condition (require(amount <= balances[msg.sender],...) ) and then changed the state (i.e. update balances balances[msg.sender] -= amount ). This is typical in Ethereum transactions. Before we change anything we need to check if it is valid to do so.
In Ergo, as we discussed previously, the state (i.e. UTXO set of boxes) is changed implicitly when a valid transaction is included in a block. Thus we only need to check the pre-conditions before the transaction can be added to the block. This is what ErgoScript contracts do.
It is not possible to “change the state” in ErgoScript because it is a language to check pre-conditions for spending coins. ErgoScript is a purely functional language without side effects that operates on immutable data values. This means all the inputs, outputs and other transaction parameters available in a script are immutable. This, among other things, makes ErgoScript a very simple language that is easy to learn and safe to use. Similar to Bitcoin, each input box contains a script, which should return the true value in order to 1) allow spending of the box (i.e. removing from the UTXO set) and 2) adding the transaction to the block.
If we are being pedantic, it is therefore incorrect (strictly speaking) to think of ErgoScript as the language of Ergo contracts, because it is the language of propositions (logical predicates, formulas, etc.) which protect boxes from “illegal” spending. Unlike Bitcoin, in Ergo the whole transaction and a part of the current blockchain context is available to every script. Therefore each script may check which outputs are created by the transaction, their ERG and token amounts (we will use this capability in our example DEX contracts), current block number etc.
In ErgoScript you define the conditions of whether changes (i.e. coin spending) are allowed to happen in a given context. This is in contrast to programming the changes imperatively in the code of a contract.
While Ergo's transaction model unlocks a whole range of applications like (DEX, DeFi Apps, LETS, etc), designing contracts as pre-conditions for coin spending (or guarding scripts) directly is not intuitive. In the next sections we will consider a useful graphical notation to design contracts declaratively using FlowCard Diagrams, which is a visual representation of executable components (FlowCards).
FlowCards aim to radically simplify dApp development on the Ergo platform by providing a high-level declarative language, execution runtime, storage format and a graphical notation.
We will start with a high level of diagrams and go down to FlowCard specification.
FlowCard Diagrams
The idea behind FlowCard diagrams is based on the following observations: 1) An Ergo box is immutable and can only be spent in the transaction which uses it as an input. 2) We therefore can draw a flow of boxes through transactions, so that boxes flowing in to the transaction are spent and those flowing out are created and added to the UTXO. 3) A transaction from this perspective is simply a transformer of old boxes to the new ones preserving the balances of ERGs and tokens involved.
The following figure shows the main elements of the Ergo transaction we've already seen previously (now under the name of FlowCard Diagram).
https://preview.redd.it/9kcxl11o9tv41.png?width=1304&format=png&auto=webp&s=378a7f50769292ca94de35ff597dc1a44af56d14
There is a strictly defined meaning (semantics) behind every element of the diagram, so that the diagram is a visual representation (or a view) of the underlying executable component (called FlowCard).
The FlowCard can be used as a reusable component of an Ergo dApp to create and initiate the transaction on the Ergo blockchain. We will discuss this in the coming sections.
Now let's look at the individual pieces of the FlowCard diagram one by one.
  1. Name and Parameters
Each flow card is given a name and a list of typed parameters. This is similar to a template with parameters. In the above figure we can see the Send flow card which has five parameters. The parameters are used in the specification.
  1. Contract Wallet
This is a key element of the flow card. Every box has a guarding script. Often it is the script that checks a signature against a public key. This script is trivial in ErgoScript and is defined like the def pk(pubkey: Address) = { pubkey } template where pubkey is a parameter of the type Address . In the figure, the script template is applied to the parameter pk(sender) and thus a concrete wallet contract is obtained. Therefore pk(sender) and pk(receiver) yield different scripts and represent different wallets on the diagram, even though they use the same template.
Contract Wallet contains a set of all UTXO boxes which have a given script derived from the given script template using flow card parameters. For example, in the figure, the template is pk and parameter pubkey is substituted with the `sender’ flow card parameter.
  1. Contract
Even though a contract is a property of a box, on the diagram we group the boxes by their contracts, therefore it looks like the boxes belong to the contracts, rather than the contracts belong to the boxes. In the example, we have three instantiated contracts pk(sender) , pk(receiver) and minerFee . Note, that pk(sender) is the instantiation of the pk template with the concrete parameter sender and minerFee is the instantiation of the pre-defined contract which protects the miner reward boxes.
  1. Box name
In the diagram we can give each box a name. Besides readability of the diagram, we also use the name as a synonym of a more complex indexed access to the box in the contract. For example, change is the name of the box, which can also be used in the ErgoScript conditions instead of OUTPUTS(2) . We also use box names to associate spending conditions with the boxes.
  1. Boxes in the wallet
In the diagram, we show boxes (darker rectangles) as belonging to the contract wallets (lighter rectangles). Each such box rectangle is connected with a grey transaction rectangle by either orange or green arrows or both. An output box (with an incoming green arrow) may include many lines of text where each line specifies a condition which should be checked as part of the transaction. The first line specifies the condition on the amount of ERG which should be placed in the box. Other lines may take one of the following forms:
  1. amount: TOKEN - the box should contain the given amount of the given TOKEN
  2. R == value - the box should contain the given value of the given register R
  3. boxName ? condition - the box named boxName should check condition in its script.
We discuss these conditions in the sections below.
  1. Amount of ERGs in the box
Each box should store a minimum amount of ERGs. This is checked when the creating transaction is validated. In the diagram the amount of ERGs is always shown as the first line (e.g. B: ERG or B - minErg - txFee ). The value type ascription B: ERG is optional and may be used for readability. When the value is given as a formula, then this formula should be respected by the transaction which creates the box.
It is important to understand that variables like amount and txFee are not named properties of the boxes. They are parameters of the whole diagram and representing some amounts. Or put it another way, they are shared parameters between transactions (e.g. Sell Order and Swap transactions from DEX example below share the tAmt parameter). So the same name is tied to the same value throughout the diagram (this is where the tooling would help a lot). However, when it comes to on-chain validation of those values, only explicit conditions which are marked with ? are transformed to ErgoScript. At the same time, all other conditions are ensured off-chain during transaction building (for example in an application using Appkit API) and transaction validation when it is added to the blockchain.
  1. Amount of T token
A box can store values of many tokens. The tokens on the diagram are named and a value variable may be associated with the token T using value: T expression. The value may be given by formula. If the formula is prefixed with a box name like boxName ? formula , then it is should also be checked in the guarding script of the boxName box. This additional specification is very convenient because 1) it allows to validate the visual design automatically, and 2) the conditions specified in the boxes of a diagram are enough to synthesize the necessary guarding scripts. (more about this below at “From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts”)
  1. Tx Inputs
Inputs are connected to the corresponding transaction by orange arrows. An input arrow may have a label of the following forms:
  1. [email protected] - optional name with an index i.e. [email protected] or u/2 . This is a property of the target endpoint of the arrow. The name is used in conditions of related boxes and the index is the position of the corresponding box in the INPUTS collection of the transaction.
  2. !action - is a property of the source of the arrow and gives a name for an alternative spending path of the box (we will see this in DEX example)
Because of alternative spending paths, a box may have many outgoing orange arrows, in which case they should be labeled with different actions.
  1. Transaction
A transaction spends input boxes and creates output boxes. The input boxes are given by the orange arrows and the labels are expected to put inputs at the right indexes in INPUTS collection. The output boxes are given by the green arrows. Each transaction should preserve a strict balance of ERG values (sum of inputs == sum of outputs) and for each token the sum of inputs >= the sum of outputs. The design diagram requires an explicit specification of the ERG and token values for all of the output boxes to avoid implicit errors and ensure better readability.
  1. Tx Outputs
Outputs are connected to the corresponding transaction by green arrows. An output arrow may have a label of the following [email protected] , where an optional name is accompanied with an index i.e. [email protected] or u/2 . This is a property of the source endpoint of the arrow. The name is used in conditions of the related boxes and the index is the position of the corresponding box in the OUTPUTS collection of the transaction.
Example: Decentralized Exchange (DEX)
Now let's use the above described notation to design a FlowCard for a DEX dApp. It is simple enough yet also illustrates all of the key features of FlowCard diagrams which we've introduced in the previous section.
The dApp scenario is shown in the figure below: There are three participants (buyer, seller and DEX) of the DEX dApp and five different transaction types, which are created by participants. The buyer wants to swap ergAmt of ERGs for tAmt of TID tokens (or vice versa, the seller wants to sell TID tokens for ERGs, who sends the order first doesn't matter). Both the buyer and the seller can cancel their orders any time. The DEX off-chain matching service can find matching orders and create the Swap transaction to complete the exchange.
The following diagram fully (and formally) specifies all of the five transactions that must be created off-chain by the DEX dApp. It also specifies all of the spending conditions that should be verified on-chain.

https://preview.redd.it/fnt5f4qp9tv41.png?width=1614&format=png&auto=webp&s=34f145f9a6d622454906857e645def2faba057bd
Let's discuss the FlowCard diagram and the logic of each transaction in details:
Buy Order Transaction
A buyer creates a Buy Order transaction. The transaction spends E amount of ERGs (which we will write E: ERG ) from one or more boxes in the pk(buyer) wallet. The transaction creates a bid box with ergAmt: ERG protected by the buyOrder script. The buyOrder script is synthesized from the specification (see below at “From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts”) either manually or automatically by a tool. Even though we don't need to define the buyOrder script explicitly during designing, at run time the bid box should contain the buyOrder script as the guarding proposition (which checks the box spending conditions), otherwise the conditions specified in the diagram will not be checked.
The change box is created to make the input and output sums of the transaction balanced. The transaction fee box is omitted because it can be added automatically by the tools. In practice, however, the designer can add the fee box explicitly to the a diagram. It covers the cases of more complex transactions (like Swap) where there are many ways to pay the transaction fee.
Cancel Buy, Cancel Sell Transactions
At any time, the buyer can cancel the order by sending CancelBuy transaction. The transaction should satisfy the guarding buyOrder contract which protects the bid box. As you can see on the diagram, both the Cancel and the Swap transactions can spend the bid box. When a box has spending alternatives (or spending paths) then each alternative is identified by a unique name prefixed with ! (!cancel and !swap for the bid box). Each alternative path has specific spending conditions. In our example, when the Cancel Buy transaction spends the bid box the ?buyer condition should be satisfied, which we read as “the signature for the buyer address should be presented in the transaction”. Therefore, only buyer can cancel the buy order. This “signature” condition is only required for the !cancel alternative spending path and not required for !swap .
Sell Order Transaction
The Sell Order transaction is similar to the BuyOrder in that it deals with tokens in addition to ERGs. The transaction spends E: ERG and T: TID tokens from seller's wallet (specified as pk(seller) contract). The two outputs are ask and change . The change is a standard box to balance transaction. The ask box keeps tAmt: TID tokens for the exchange and minErg: ERG - the minimum amount of ERGs required in every box.
Swap Transaction
This is a key transaction in the DEX dApp scenario. The transaction has several spending conditions on the input boxes and those conditions are included in the buyOrder and sellOrder scripts (which are verified when the transaction is added to the blockchain). However, on the diagram those conditions are not specified in the bid and ask boxes, they are instead defined in the output boxes of the transaction.
This is a convention for improved usability because most of the conditions relate to the properties of the output boxes. We could specify those properties in the bid box, but then we would have to use more complex expressions.
Let's consider the output created by the arrow labeled with [email protected] . This label tells us that the output is at the index 0 in the OUTPUTS collection of the transaction and that in the diagram we can refer to this box by the buyerOut name. Thus we can label both the box itself and the arrow to give the box a name.
The conditions shown in the buyerOut box have the form bid ? condition , which means they should be verified on-chain in order to spend the bid box. The conditions have the following meaning:
  • tAmt: TID requires the box to have tAmt amount of TID token
  • R4 == bid.id requires R4 register in the box to be equal to id of the bid box.
  • script == buyer requires the buyerOut box to have the script of the wallet where it is located on the diagram, i.e. pk(buyer)
Similar properties are added to the sellerOut box, which is specified to be at index 1 and the name is given to it using the label on the box itself, rather than on the arrow.
The Swap transaction spends two boxes bid and ask using the !swap spending path on both, however unlike !cancel the conditions on the path are not specified. This is where the bid ? and ask ? prefixes come into play. They are used so that the conditions listed in the buyerOut and sellerOut boxes are moved to the !swap spending path of the bid and ask boxes correspondingly.
If you look at the conditions of the output boxes, you will see that they exactly specify the swap of values between seller's and buyer's wallets. The buyer gets the necessary amount of TID token and seller gets the corresponding amount of ERGs. The Swap transaction is created when there are two matching boxes with buyOrder and sellOrder contracts.
From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts
What is interesting about FlowCard specifications is that we can use them to automatically generate the necessary ErgoTree scripts. With the appropriate tooling support this can be done automatically, but with the lack of thereof, it can be done manually. Thus, the FlowCard allows us to capture and visually represent all of the design choices and semantic details of an Ergo dApp.
What we are going to do next is to mechanically create the buyOrder contract from the information given in the DEX flow card.
Recall that each script is a proposition (boolean valued expression) which should evaluate to true to allow spending of the box. When we have many conditions to be met at the same time we can combine them in a logical formula using the AND binary operation, and if we have alternatives (not necessarily exclusive) we can put them into the OR operation.
The buyOrder box has the alternative spending paths !cancel and !swap . Thus the ErgoScript code should have OR operation with two arguments - one for each spending path.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = {} val swapCondition = {} cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
The formula for the cancelCondition expression is given in the !cancel spending path of the buyOrder box. We can directly include it in the script.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = { buyer } val swapCondition = {} cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
For the !swap spending path of the buyOrder box the conditions are specified in the buyerOut output box of the Swap transaction. If we simply include them in the swapCondition then we get a syntactically incorrect script.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = { buyer } val swapCondition = { tAmt: TID && R4 == bid.id && @contract } cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
We can however translate the conditions from the diagram syntax to ErgoScript expressions using the following simple rules
  1. [email protected] ==> val buyerOut = OUTPUTS(0)
  2. tAmt: TID ==> tid._2 == tAmt where tid = buyerOut.tokens(TID)
  3. R4 == bid.id ==> R4 == SELF.id where R4 = buyerOut.R4[Coll[Byte]].get
  4. script == buyer ==> buyerOut.propositionBytes == buyer.propBytes
Note, in the diagram TID represents a token id, but ErgoScript doesn't have access to the tokens by the ids so we cannot write tokens.getByKey(TID) . For this reason, when the diagram is translated into ErgoScript, TID becomes a named constant of the index in tokens collection of the box. The concrete value of the constant is assigned when the BuyOrder transaction with the buyOrder box is created. The correspondence and consistency between the actual tokenId, the TID constant and the actual tokens of the buyerOut box is ensured by the off-chain application code, which is completely possible since all of the transactions are created by the application using FlowCard as a guiding specification. This may sound too complicated, but this is part of the translation from diagram specification to actual executable application code, most of which can be automated.
After the transformation we can obtain a correct script which checks all the required preconditions for spending the buyOrder box.
/** buyOrder contract */ def DEX(buyer: Addrss, seller: Address, TID: Int, ergAmt: Long, tAmt: Long) { val cancelCondition: SigmaProp = { buyer } // verify buyer's sig (ProveDlog) val swapCondition = OUTPUTS.size > 0 && { // securing OUTPUTS access val buyerOut = OUTPUTS(0) // from [email protected] buyerOut.tokens.size > TID && { // securing tokens access val tid = buyerOut.tokens(TID) val regR4 = buyerOut.R4[Coll[Byte]] regR4.isDefined && { // securing R4 access val R4 = regR4.get tid._2 == tAmt && // from tAmt: TID R4 == SELF.id && // from R4 == bid.id buyerOut.propositionBytes == buyer.propBytes // from script == buyer } } } cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
A similar script for the sellOrder box can be obtained using the same translation rules. With the help of the tooling the code of contracts can be mechanically generated from the diagram specification.
Conclusions
Declarative programming models have already won the battle against imperative programming in many application domains like Big Data, Stream Processing, Deep Learning, Databases, etc. Ergo is pioneering the declarative model of dApp development as a better and safer alternative to the now popular imperative model of smart contracts.
The concept of FlowCard shifts the focus from writing ErgoScript contracts to the overall flow of values (hence the name), in such a way, that ErgoScript can always be generated from them. You will never need to look at the ErgoScript code once the tooling is in place.
Here are the possible next steps for future work:
  1. Storage format for FlowCard Spec and the corresponding EIP standardized file format (Json/XML/Protobuf). This will allow various tools (Diagram Editor, Runtime, dApps etc) to create and use *.flowcard files.
  2. FlowCard Viewer, which can generate the diagrams from *.flowcard files.
  3. FlowCard Runtime, which can run *.flowcard files, create and send transactions to Ergo network.
  4. FlowCard Designer Tool, which can simplify development of complex diagrams . This will make designing and validation of Ergo contracts a pleasant experience, more like drawing rather than coding. In addition, the correctness of the whole dApp scenario can be verified and controlled by the tooling.
submitted by Guilty_Pea to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

FlowCards: A Declarative Framework for Development of Ergo dApps

FlowCards: A Declarative Framework for Development of Ergo dApps
Introduction
ErgoScript is the smart contract language used by the Ergo blockchain. While it has concise syntax adopted from Scala/Kotlin, it still may seem confusing at first because conceptually ErgoScript is quite different compared to conventional languages which we all know and love. This is because Ergo is a UTXO based blockchain, whereas smart contracts are traditionally associated with account based systems like Ethereum. However, Ergo's transaction model has many advantages over the account based model and with the right approach it can even be significantly easier to develop Ergo contracts than to write and debug Solidity code.
Below we will cover the key aspects of the Ergo contract model which makes it different:
Paradigm
The account model of Ethereum is imperative. This means that the typical task of sending coins from Alice to Bob requires changing the balances in storage as a series of operations. Ergo's UTXO based programming model on the other hand is declarative. ErgoScript contracts specify conditions for a transaction to be accepted by the blockchain (not changes to be made in the storage state as result of the contract execution).
Scalability
In the account model of Ethereum both storage changes and validity checks are performed on-chain during code execution. In contrast, Ergo transactions are created off-chain and only validation checks are performed on-chain thus reducing the amount of operations performed by every node on the network. In addition, due to immutability of the transaction graph, various optimization strategies are possible to improve throughput of transactions per second in the network. Light verifying nodes are also possible thus further facilitating scalability and accessibility of the network.
Shared state
The account-based model is reliant on shared mutable state which is known to lead to complex semantics (and subtle million dollar bugs) in the context of concurrent/ distributed computation. Ergo's model is based on an immutable graph of transactions. This approach, inherited from Bitcoin, plays well with the concurrent and distributed nature of blockchains and facilitates light trustless clients.
Expressive Power
Ethereum advocated execution of a turing-complete language on the blockchain. It theoretically promised unlimited potential, however in practice severe limitations came to light from excessive blockchain bloat, subtle multi-million dollar bugs, gas costs which limit contract complexity, and other such problems. Ergo on the flip side extends UTXO to enable turing-completeness while limiting the complexity of the ErgoScript language itself. The same expressive power is achieved in a different and more semantically sound way.
With the all of the above points, it should be clear that there are a lot of benefits to the model Ergo is using. In the rest of this article I will introduce you to the concept of FlowCards - a dApp developer component which allows for designing complex Ergo contracts in a declarative and visual way.

From Imperative to Declarative

In the imperative programming model of Ethereum a transaction is a sequence of operations executed by the Ethereum VM. The following Solidity function implements a transfer of tokens from sender to receiver . The transaction starts when sender calls this function on an instance of a contract and ends when the function returns.
// Sends an amount of existing coins from any caller to an address function send(address receiver, uint amount) public { require(amount <= balances[msg.sender], "Insufficient balance."); balances[msg.sender] -= amount; balances[receiver] += amount; emit Sent(msg.sender, receiver, amount); } 
The function first checks the pre-conditions, then updates the storage (i.e. balances) and finally publishes the post-condition as the Sent event. The gas which is consumed by the transaction is sent to the miner as a reward for executing this transaction.
Unlike Ethereum, a transaction in Ergo is a data structure holding a list of input coins which it spends and a list of output coins which it creates preserving the total balances of ERGs and tokens (in which Ergo is similar to Bitcoin).
Turning back to the example above, since Ergo natively supports tokens, therefore for this specific example of sending tokens we don't need to write any code in ErgoScript. Instead we need to create the ‘send’ transaction shown in the following figure, which describes the same token transfer but declaratively.
https://preview.redd.it/sxs3kesvrsv41.png?width=1348&format=png&auto=webp&s=582382bc26912ff79114d831d937d94b6988e69f
The picture visually describes the following steps, which the network user needs to perform:
  1. Select unspent sender's boxes, containing in total tB >= amount of tokens and B >= txFee + minErg ERGs.
  2. Create an output target box which is protected by the receiver public key with minErg ERGs and amount of T tokens.
  3. Create one fee output protected by the minerFee contract with txFee ERGs.
  4. Create one change output protected by the sender public key, containing B - minErg - txFee ERGs and tB - amount of T tokens.
  5. Create a new transaction, sign it using the sender's secret key and send to the Ergo network.
What is important to understand here is that all of these steps are preformed off-chain (for example using Appkit Transaction API) by the user's application. Ergo network nodes don't need to repeat this transaction creation process, they only need to validate the already formed transaction. ErgoScript contracts are stored in the inputs of the transaction and check spending conditions. The node executes the contracts on-chain when the transaction is validated. The transaction is valid if all of the conditions are satisfied.
Thus, in Ethereum when we “send amount from sender to recipient” we are literally editing balances and updating the storage with a concrete set of commands. This happens on-chain and thus a new transaction is also created on-chain as the result of this process.
In Ergo (as in Bitcoin) transactions are created off-chain and the network nodes only verify them. The effects of the transaction on the blockchain state is that input coins (or Boxes in Ergo's parlance) are removed and output boxes are added to the UTXO set.
In the example above we don't use an ErgoScript contract but instead assume a signature check is used as the spending pre-condition. However in more complex application scenarios we of course need to use ErgoScript which is what we are going to discuss next.

From Changing State to Checking Context

In the send function example we first checked the pre-condition (require(amount <= balances[msg.sender],...) ) and then changed the state (i.e. update balances balances[msg.sender] -= amount ). This is typical in Ethereum transactions. Before we change anything we need to check if it is valid to do so.
In Ergo, as we discussed previously, the state (i.e. UTXO set of boxes) is changed implicitly when a valid transaction is included in a block. Thus we only need to check the pre-conditions before the transaction can be added to the block. This is what ErgoScript contracts do.
It is not possible to “change the state” in ErgoScript because it is a language to check pre-conditions for spending coins. ErgoScript is a purely functional language without side effects that operates on immutable data values. This means all the inputs, outputs and other transaction parameters available in a script are immutable. This, among other things, makes ErgoScript a very simple language that is easy to learn and safe to use. Similar to Bitcoin, each input box contains a script, which should return the true value in order to 1) allow spending of the box (i.e. removing from the UTXO set) and 2) adding the transaction to the block.
If we are being pedantic, it is therefore incorrect (strictly speaking) to think of ErgoScript as the language of Ergo contracts, because it is the language of propositions (logical predicates, formulas, etc.) which protect boxes from “illegal” spending. Unlike Bitcoin, in Ergo the whole transaction and a part of the current blockchain context is available to every script. Therefore each script may check which outputs are created by the transaction, their ERG and token amounts (we will use this capability in our example DEX contracts), current block number etc.
In ErgoScript you define the conditions of whether changes (i.e. coin spending) are allowed to happen in a given context. This is in contrast to programming the changes imperatively in the code of a contract.
While Ergo's transaction model unlocks a whole range of applications like (DEX, DeFi Apps, LETS, etc), designing contracts as pre-conditions for coin spending (or guarding scripts) directly is not intuitive. In the next sections we will consider a useful graphical notation to design contracts declaratively using FlowCard Diagrams, which is a visual representation of executable components (FlowCards).
FlowCards aim to radically simplify dApp development on the Ergo platform by providing a high-level declarative language, execution runtime, storage format and a graphical notation.
We will start with a high level of diagrams and go down to FlowCard specification.

FlowCard Diagrams

The idea behind FlowCard diagrams is based on the following observations: 1) An Ergo box is immutable and can only be spent in the transaction which uses it as an input. 2) We therefore can draw a flow of boxes through transactions, so that boxes flowing in to the transaction are spent and those flowing out are created and added to the UTXO. 3) A transaction from this perspective is simply a transformer of old boxes to the new ones preserving the balances of ERGs and tokens involved.
The following figure shows the main elements of the Ergo transaction we've already seen previously (now under the name of FlowCard Diagram).
https://preview.redd.it/06aqkcd1ssv41.png?width=1304&format=png&auto=webp&s=106eda730e0526919aabd5af9596b97e45b69777
There is a strictly defined meaning (semantics) behind every element of the diagram, so that the diagram is a visual representation (or a view) of the underlying executable component (called FlowCard).
The FlowCard can be used as a reusable component of an Ergo dApp to create and initiate the transaction on the Ergo blockchain. We will discuss this in the coming sections.
Now let's look at the individual pieces of the FlowCard diagram one by one.
1. Name and Parameters
Each flow card is given a name and a list of typed parameters. This is similar to a template with parameters. In the above figure we can see the Send flow card which has five parameters. The parameters are used in the specification.
2. Contract Wallet
This is a key element of the flow card. Every box has a guarding script. Often it is the script that checks a signature against a public key. This script is trivial in ErgoScript and is defined like the def pk(pubkey: Address) = { pubkey } template where pubkey is a parameter of the type Address . In the figure, the script template is applied to the parameter pk(sender) and thus a concrete wallet contract is obtained. Therefore pk(sender) and pk(receiver) yield different scripts and represent different wallets on the diagram, even though they use the same template.
Contract Wallet contains a set of all UTXO boxes which have a given script derived from the given script template using flow card parameters. For example, in the figure, the template is pk and parameter pubkey is substituted with the `sender’ flow card parameter.
3. Contract
Even though a contract is a property of a box, on the diagram we group the boxes by their contracts, therefore it looks like the boxes belong to the contracts, rather than the contracts belong to the boxes. In the example, we have three instantiated contracts pk(sender) , pk(receiver) and minerFee . Note, that pk(sender) is the instantiation of the pk template with the concrete parameter sender and minerFee is the instantiation of the pre-defined contract which protects the miner reward boxes.
4. Box name
In the diagram we can give each box a name. Besides readability of the diagram, we also use the name as a synonym of a more complex indexed access to the box in the contract. For example, change is the name of the box, which can also be used in the ErgoScript conditions instead of OUTPUTS(2) . We also use box names to associate spending conditions with the boxes.
5. Boxes in the wallet
In the diagram, we show boxes (darker rectangles) as belonging to the contract wallets (lighter rectangles). Each such box rectangle is connected with a grey transaction rectangle by either orange or green arrows or both. An output box (with an incoming green arrow) may include many lines of text where each line specifies a condition which should be checked as part of the transaction. The first line specifies the condition on the amount of ERG which should be placed in the box. Other lines may take one of the following forms:
  1. amount: TOKEN - the box should contain the given amount of the given TOKEN
  2. R == value - the box should contain the given value of the given register R
  3. boxName ? condition - the box named boxName should check condition in its script.
We discuss these conditions in the sections below.
6. Amount of ERGs in the box
Each box should store a minimum amount of ERGs. This is checked when the creating transaction is validated. In the diagram the amount of ERGs is always shown as the first line (e.g. B: ERG or B - minErg - txFee ). The value type ascription B: ERG is optional and may be used for readability. When the value is given as a formula, then this formula should be respected by the transaction which creates the box.
It is important to understand that variables like amount and txFee are not named properties of the boxes. They are parameters of the whole diagram and representing some amounts. Or put it another way, they are shared parameters between transactions (e.g. Sell Order and Swap transactions from DEX example below share the tAmt parameter). So the same name is tied to the same value throughout the diagram (this is where the tooling would help a lot). However, when it comes to on-chain validation of those values, only explicit conditions which are marked with ? are transformed to ErgoScript. At the same time, all other conditions are ensured off-chain during transaction building (for example in an application using Appkit API) and transaction validation when it is added to the blockchain.
7. Amount of T token
A box can store values of many tokens. The tokens on the diagram are named and a value variable may be associated with the token T using value: T expression. The value may be given by formula. If the formula is prefixed with a box name like boxName ? formula , then it is should also be checked in the guarding script of the boxName box. This additional specification is very convenient because 1) it allows to validate the visual design automatically, and 2) the conditions specified in the boxes of a diagram are enough to synthesize the necessary guarding scripts. (more about this below at “From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts”)
8. Tx Inputs
Inputs are connected to the corresponding transaction by orange arrows. An input arrow may have a label of the following forms:
  1. [email protected] - optional name with an index i.e. [email protected] or u/2 . This is a property of the target endpoint of the arrow. The name is used in conditions of related boxes and the index is the position of the corresponding box in the INPUTS collection of the transaction.
  2. !action - is a property of the source of the arrow and gives a name for an alternative spending path of the box (we will see this in DEX example)
Because of alternative spending paths, a box may have many outgoing orange arrows, in which case they should be labeled with different actions.
9. Transaction
A transaction spends input boxes and creates output boxes. The input boxes are given by the orange arrows and the labels are expected to put inputs at the right indexes in INPUTS collection. The output boxes are given by the green arrows. Each transaction should preserve a strict balance of ERG values (sum of inputs == sum of outputs) and for each token the sum of inputs >= the sum of outputs. The design diagram requires an explicit specification of the ERG and token values for all of the output boxes to avoid implicit errors and ensure better readability.
10. Tx Outputs
Outputs are connected to the corresponding transaction by green arrows. An output arrow may have a label of the following [email protected] , where an optional name is accompanied with an index i.e. [email protected] or u/2 . This is a property of the source endpoint of the arrow. The name is used in conditions of the related boxes and the index is the position of the corresponding box in the OUTPUTS collection of the transaction.

Example: Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

Now let's use the above described notation to design a FlowCard for a DEX dApp. It is simple enough yet also illustrates all of the key features of FlowCard diagrams which we've introduced in the previous section.
The dApp scenario is shown in the figure below: There are three participants (buyer, seller and DEX) of the DEX dApp and five different transaction types, which are created by participants. The buyer wants to swap ergAmt of ERGs for tAmt of TID tokens (or vice versa, the seller wants to sell TID tokens for ERGs, who sends the order first doesn't matter). Both the buyer and the seller can cancel their orders any time. The DEX off-chain matching service can find matching orders and create the Swap transaction to complete the exchange.
The following diagram fully (and formally) specifies all of the five transactions that must be created off-chain by the DEX dApp. It also specifies all of the spending conditions that should be verified on-chain.

https://preview.redd.it/piogz0v9ssv41.png?width=1614&format=png&auto=webp&s=e1b503a635ad3d138ef91e2f0c3b726e78958646
Let's discuss the FlowCard diagram and the logic of each transaction in details:
Buy Order Transaction
A buyer creates a Buy Order transaction. The transaction spends E amount of ERGs (which we will write E: ERG ) from one or more boxes in the pk(buyer) wallet. The transaction creates a bid box with ergAmt: ERG protected by the buyOrder script. The buyOrder script is synthesized from the specification (see below at “From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts”) either manually or automatically by a tool. Even though we don't need to define the buyOrder script explicitly during designing, at run time the bid box should contain the buyOrder script as the guarding proposition (which checks the box spending conditions), otherwise the conditions specified in the diagram will not be checked.
The change box is created to make the input and output sums of the transaction balanced. The transaction fee box is omitted because it can be added automatically by the tools. In practice, however, the designer can add the fee box explicitly to the a diagram. It covers the cases of more complex transactions (like Swap) where there are many ways to pay the transaction fee.
Cancel Buy, Cancel Sell Transactions
At any time, the buyer can cancel the order by sending CancelBuy transaction. The transaction should satisfy the guarding buyOrder contract which protects the bid box. As you can see on the diagram, both the Cancel and the Swap transactions can spend the bid box. When a box has spending alternatives (or spending paths) then each alternative is identified by a unique name prefixed with ! (!cancel and !swap for the bid box). Each alternative path has specific spending conditions. In our example, when the Cancel Buy transaction spends the bid box the ?buyer condition should be satisfied, which we read as “the signature for the buyer address should be presented in the transaction”. Therefore, only buyer can cancel the buy order. This “signature” condition is only required for the !cancel alternative spending path and not required for !swap .
Sell Order Transaction
The Sell Order transaction is similar to the BuyOrder in that it deals with tokens in addition to ERGs. The transaction spends E: ERG and T: TID tokens from seller's wallet (specified as pk(seller) contract). The two outputs are ask and change . The change is a standard box to balance transaction. The ask box keeps tAmt: TID tokens for the exchange and minErg: ERG - the minimum amount of ERGs required in every box.
Swap Transaction
This is a key transaction in the DEX dApp scenario. The transaction has several spending conditions on the input boxes and those conditions are included in the buyOrder and sellOrder scripts (which are verified when the transaction is added to the blockchain). However, on the diagram those conditions are not specified in the bid and ask boxes, they are instead defined in the output boxes of the transaction.
This is a convention for improved usability because most of the conditions relate to the properties of the output boxes. We could specify those properties in the bid box, but then we would have to use more complex expressions.
Let's consider the output created by the arrow labeled with [email protected] . This label tells us that the output is at the index 0 in the OUTPUTS collection of the transaction and that in the diagram we can refer to this box by the buyerOut name. Thus we can label both the box itself and the arrow to give the box a name.
The conditions shown in the buyerOut box have the form bid ? condition , which means they should be verified on-chain in order to spend the bid box. The conditions have the following meaning:
  • tAmt: TID requires the box to have tAmt amount of TID token
  • R4 == bid.id requires R4 register in the box to be equal to id of the bid box.
  • script == buyer requires the buyerOut box to have the script of the wallet where it is located on the diagram, i.e. pk(buyer)
Similar properties are added to the sellerOut box, which is specified to be at index 1 and the name is given to it using the label on the box itself, rather than on the arrow.
The Swap transaction spends two boxes bid and ask using the !swap spending path on both, however unlike !cancel the conditions on the path are not specified. This is where the bid ? and ask ? prefixes come into play. They are used so that the conditions listed in the buyerOut and sellerOut boxes are moved to the !swap spending path of the bid and ask boxes correspondingly.
If you look at the conditions of the output boxes, you will see that they exactly specify the swap of values between seller's and buyer's wallets. The buyer gets the necessary amount of TID token and seller gets the corresponding amount of ERGs. The Swap transaction is created when there are two matching boxes with buyOrder and sellOrder contracts.

From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts

What is interesting about FlowCard specifications is that we can use them to automatically generate the necessary ErgoTree scripts. With the appropriate tooling support this can be done automatically, but with the lack of thereof, it can be done manually. Thus, the FlowCard allows us to capture and visually represent all of the design choices and semantic details of an Ergo dApp.
What we are going to do next is to mechanically create the buyOrder contract from the information given in the DEX flow card.
Recall that each script is a proposition (boolean valued expression) which should evaluate to true to allow spending of the box. When we have many conditions to be met at the same time we can combine them in a logical formula using the AND binary operation, and if we have alternatives (not necessarily exclusive) we can put them into the OR operation.
The buyOrder box has the alternative spending paths !cancel and !swap . Thus the ErgoScript code should have OR operation with two arguments - one for each spending path.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = {} val swapCondition = {} cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
The formula for the cancelCondition expression is given in the !cancel spending path of the buyOrder box. We can directly include it in the script.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = { buyer } val swapCondition = {} cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
For the !swap spending path of the buyOrder box the conditions are specified in the buyerOut output box of the Swap transaction. If we simply include them in the swapCondition then we get a syntactically incorrect script.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = { buyer } val swapCondition = { tAmt: TID && R4 == bid.id && @contract } cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
We can however translate the conditions from the diagram syntax to ErgoScript expressions using the following simple rules
  1. [email protected] ==> val buyerOut = OUTPUTS(0)
  2. tAmt: TID ==> tid._2 == tAmt where tid = buyerOut.tokens(TID)
  3. R4 == bid.id ==> R4 == SELF.id where R4 = buyerOut.R4[Coll[Byte]].get
  4. script == buyer ==> buyerOut.propositionBytes == buyer.propBytes
Note, in the diagram TID represents a token id, but ErgoScript doesn't have access to the tokens by the ids so we cannot write tokens.getByKey(TID) . For this reason, when the diagram is translated into ErgoScript, TID becomes a named constant of the index in tokens collection of the box. The concrete value of the constant is assigned when the BuyOrder transaction with the buyOrder box is created. The correspondence and consistency between the actual tokenId, the TID constant and the actual tokens of the buyerOut box is ensured by the off-chain application code, which is completely possible since all of the transactions are created by the application using FlowCard as a guiding specification. This may sound too complicated, but this is part of the translation from diagram specification to actual executable application code, most of which can be automated.
After the transformation we can obtain a correct script which checks all the required preconditions for spending the buyOrder box.
/** buyOrder contract */ def DEX(buyer: Addrss, seller: Address, TID: Int, ergAmt: Long, tAmt: Long) { val cancelCondition: SigmaProp = { buyer } // verify buyer's sig (ProveDlog) val swapCondition = OUTPUTS.size > 0 && { // securing OUTPUTS access val buyerOut = OUTPUTS(0) // from [email protected] buyerOut.tokens.size > TID && { // securing tokens access val tid = buyerOut.tokens(TID) val regR4 = buyerOut.R4[Coll[Byte]] regR4.isDefined && { // securing R4 access val R4 = regR4.get tid._2 == tAmt && // from tAmt: TID R4 == SELF.id && // from R4 == bid.id buyerOut.propositionBytes == buyer.propBytes // from script == buyer } } } cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
A similar script for the sellOrder box can be obtained using the same translation rules. With the help of the tooling the code of contracts can be mechanically generated from the diagram specification.

Conclusions

Declarative programming models have already won the battle against imperative programming in many application domains like Big Data, Stream Processing, Deep Learning, Databases, etc. Ergo is pioneering the declarative model of dApp development as a better and safer alternative to the now popular imperative model of smart contracts.
The concept of FlowCard shifts the focus from writing ErgoScript contracts to the overall flow of values (hence the name), in such a way, that ErgoScript can always be generated from them. You will never need to look at the ErgoScript code once the tooling is in place.
Here are the possible next steps for future work:
  1. Storage format for FlowCard Spec and the corresponding EIP standardized file format (Json/XML/Protobuf). This will allow various tools (Diagram Editor, Runtime, dApps etc) to create and use *.flowcard files.
  2. FlowCard Viewer, which can generate the diagrams from *.flowcard files.
  3. FlowCard Runtime, which can run *.flowcard files, create and send transactions to Ergo network.
  4. FlowCard Designer Tool, which can simplify development of complex diagrams . This will make designing and validation of Ergo contracts a pleasant experience, more like drawing rather than coding. In addition, the correctness of the whole dApp scenario can be verified and controlled by the tooling.
submitted by eleanorcwhite to btc [link] [comments]

GamerMine.com Giveaway | $50 ($10 x 5) Amazon.com Gift Cards!

🎀 GamerMine.com is doing a $50 Amazon.com Gift Card giveaway!

Prizes:

 
📍 - About GamerMine:
 
GamerMine is a GPT site founded in January of 2017 that values the experience of our users. With over $50,000 USD paid out to our users over 8,500 withdrawals, we've earned the trust of many members of the beermoney community.
 
By becoming a user, you're taking part in a growing community that's been active for close to 2 years. With over 10 offer providers, 3 video providers, daily login bonuses that scale with your earnings, instant withdrawals and signup bonuses, we offer a platform that rewards YOU for being a long term, loyal user.
 
📍 - What GamerMine Does Different:
 
‌• Free boosters on signup, activate whenever you want to temporarily boost your offer earnings.
‌• Daily login reward that scales with your level, more earnings, higher daily free!
‌• Over 13 offevideo providers to maximize your earnings.
‌• Daily/Monthly leaderboard that auto-rewards the highest earners in the period.
‌• Dice minigame (1% edge)
‌• Coin Flip PvP minigame (1% fee)
‌• A support team that cares, under 24 hour response time guaranteed.
‌• We offer the standard conversion rate of: 1,000 gold = $1.00 USD.
 
📍 - Withdrawal Methods:
 
Method Minimum ($ USD) Fee ($ USD)
OPSkins $0.01 FREE
PayPal $0.50 $0.25
Bitcoin $3.00 $0.35
Ethereum $1.00 $0.10
Gift Cards Coming Soon! Coming Soon!
 

👉 GET STARTED FOR FREE HERE 👈

 

Requirements:

You must have posted in /beermoney prior to today and within the last 12 months. Click here to check your recent activity. Removed posts/comments, giveaway entries, referral chains, and other low effort or off topic posts/comments do not qualify.

Giveaway ends on October 22, 2019

 
 

Leave a top level comment below to enter this giveaway!

Winners are chosen randomly with a script that was written for our giveaways and verified by our mods. After the giveaway ends, a new post will be made naming the winners for this giveaway. Stickying and posting this giveaway does not indicate endorsement or any affiliation with the above mentioned site.
 
Note: The moderators do not benefit in any way from this giveaway. This is all for you guys.
submitted by Threw_it_to_ground to beermoney [link] [comments]

(TDN) script + edits. ATTENTION this is for humor this does not mean I like the trends/celebrities involved. Also it's slightly edgy

ATTENTION this is for humor this does not mean I like the trends/celebrities involved. Also it's slightly edgy
Thanks to https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCgD0z6P5xtb8QrZeb5GvjpA
My channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCZSXW4Dc95if3tmqV84veeA
Proof of originality https://youtu.be/qut-Hqe8u2g (this one is different due to edits)
There may be some problems with the script. Sorry
THEY'RE DISCRETE AT NIGHT -by elijah snodgrass
Characters-
-Nazi Elmo -Pedestrians (5) -David Dorbrick -Incredible Hulk -Fisherman -goku -Twilight Sparkle -DanTDM -Danny Phantom -Spanky the Monkey -Goku’s Kneecap -10 Pirates -Sonic the Hedgehog -European Union -FBI Agent 1 -FBI Agent 2 -FBI Agent 3 -Eliza Thornberry -God -Nicky Manaj -Eminem -Harry Potter -Gangster Fat Guy (Pete) - 10 Communists -Ash -Mage -Kraken -Sentient Water Bottle -Dash Sears -Cleric -Car -Christian -Knuckles -The Worms -Sam -China Guy -Smacky the Monkey -News Host 1 -News Host 2 -Bambie_G -Backup Singer 1 -Backup Singer 2 -Abraham Lincoln -5 Cult Members -Cultist -Kat-B320 -Cosplayer -Ling -Dentist -Sign Holder -Literally The Pope -2 models -Lagoona -Math Guy -old man Sign Holder walks across the stage holding a sign that says “December 2 1940 (WW2)”
Curtains open on a backdrop that is late at night. (Lights Off). A van can be seen down the road the headlights blind pedestrians causing them to fall to the ground holding their eyes. A figure emerges from the white van. The figure is not easy to see in the shadows. Someone covered in red fur waits in the abandoned McDonald's drive through, It is nazi Elmo. The figure comes out of the darkness into the buzzing lights (Spotlight On) beside the McDonald's revealing that he is David Dobrick.
Elmo: I've been waiting for you.
David Dobrick: Elmo stop playing these games!
Elmo: What do you mean?
David Dobrick: why here?
David dobrick gives Nazi Elmo a duffle bag Elmo eyes it closely sniffing it deeply.
David dobrick: I'm leaving now there's no more for me to do.
Elmo takes out a Mauser and shoots David directly in the head. David falls to the ground making a desperate attempt to crawl away he finally gives back a final breath.
Elmo: a shame, You were a fine minion.
Sign Holder crawls across the stage holding a sign that says “December 2, 1999”
The curtains close and reopen to a small village.
The incredible hulk: Did you hear about last night?
Fisherman: Shut up, I'm just selling fish!
Hulk: you will never understand.
Fisherman: are ya buyin or not. (randomly an Irish accent).
Hulk: Yeah yeah.
Hulk digs into his ripped purple shorts. He digs for about a minute then finally takes out a bag. The bag contains a few strange blue coins. Hulk flips a coin to him he takes the fish.
Fisherman: This isn't money!
Hulk dashes away from the fisherman with great speed and agility, Danny Phantom enters and seems confused DanTDM does the same.
Danny Phantom: Where am I????
DanTDM: Dad, really?.
Danny Phantom: Ho Ho HO you always get me.
Twilight enters cheerily.
Twilight sparkle: Hello magical friends.
Danny Phantom blushes showing an extremely desperate attempt to hide his major crush for twilight, Goku enters with a long grin and a teapot.
Goku: I lost my vocal cords.
Goku’s kneecap: No your wrong.
Twilight jumps into a pit of cherry jello and suffocates to death The lights abruptly dim, After a while hulk chims up
Hulk: Damn it's getting’ dark y'all!
Goku: Your right we should find a spot to camp.
DanTDM looks over into a strange door that seems to be connected to a cave, The door has metal bars coming down the it and the doorknob is broken off. DanTDM walks over to it and so do the rest of them.
DanTDM: This place looks super scary!
DanTDM opens the door by putting his foot under it and prying it open. They all travel down.
Hulk: If something approaches i'll smash them.
Danny Phantom: I'll send them into the ghost mug.
Nazi Elmo aproaches holding a lanturn veering the light towrds them.
Nazi Elmo: I thought I told earth a lesson last time.
Hulk: ive heard of this, Its nazi Elmo. An ultra hybrid evolving demon from WW2. my father always told me he would come but I never believed him, I guess he was right!
Nazi Elmo: Yes thats right, now i will destroy the human race.
Goku forms a blue energy into his hands and blasts nazi Elmo he flies into a wall.
Nazi Elmo: Dang, you used the unspell spell, now i cant destroy you.
Goku: Not only that but I formed a lock spell so you can't touch us.
Nazi Elmo tries to punch goku but it goes right through him.
Danny Phantom: We still have to rest in this wretched dungeon to discover tomorrow.
Spanky the monkey enters.
Spanky the monkey: hey y'all!
DanTDM: OH NO!
DanTDM pulls out a yellow sword and slices the monkey. Spanky the Monkey dies.
DanTDM: I only leave bones on the ground and blood on my sword.
Nazi Elmo pulls out a duffle bag and throws it at Danny Phantom. Everyone other than Elmo teleports outside.
Danny Phantom: Wha-What is this?
Nazi Elmo: heehee.
Danny Phantom opens the bag and pulls out a strange device. Nazi Elmo presses a button on the device. A hydrogen bomb comes out from the device and goes into the sky and blows up the moon.
Nazi Elmo: i do what i must, HeeHeeHee...
Moon pieces fall from the sky striking DanTDM and danny Phantom in the leg.
DanTDM: Oh god its in my head AHHHH!!!
Danny Phantom: my-my heart it h- uuuuhhhh
Danny Phantom falls to the ground covered in blood, After a minute of everyone watching danny chokes on his blood and dies. Goku forms a green beam onto DanTDM and the moon piece is healed
Goku: i healed the crater in your head. A hearty gang of 10 pirates enter drinking rum and singing.
Everyone in the gang: “HeeHee We kill with glee while we shoot them dead in their heads.”
Sonic enters selling canned chili tacos at an alarming rate.
Sonic: God i've already sold 400,000,000 cans of chili tacos.
Sonic: what's this?
Sonic picks up the teleport box and clicks it teleporting the remaining people in the area and spankys dead corpse to the EU building. The entire European Union senate enters chatter emerges from the crowd, Nazi Elmo enters soon after him no one follows.
Goku enters 5 seconds later.
The whole EU starts talking Nazi Elmo shoots through them cauing them all to fall on a fence decapitating them all.
Elmo: That'll deal with the economy.
Eliza Thronberry(respected EU member) enters.
Goku: Damn your kinda hot!!
Eliza Thornberry: Thank you teehee.
The fbi enters.
Fbi Agent 1: I'm a unoriginal character forced In by the editors
Fbi Agent 2: hands on behind your back.
Fbi Agent 3: You hear us???? We said do it.
Goku: no.
Goku blast all three agents into a pile of ash and organs.
Eminem enters
Eminem: I eat cheetos, Powdered like doritos, I steal the fritos, Goku don't need a knee tho.
Eminem shoots Goku in the knee.
Goku’s kneecap dies.
Nicky Manaj enters.
Nicky: Ey yo i'm Nicky Manaj.
Nicky kills herself out of fear.
Goku: all my friends die at some point
Curtains close, Everyone leaves the scene The curtains open revealing an exterior of walmart Harry potter enters.
Harry: I really am a wizard and my powers are extreme.
Harry sends a lightning blast into the sky.
Harry: that’ll teach god a lesson.
God enters.
God: How dare you defy me mortal.
Harry stabs god, Gangster Fat Guy enters.
Gangster Fat Guy is holding two models both sides of him With a gold chain and grills.
Gangster Fat Guy: Eyyyyy yoyoyoyo Waddup homie.
Gangster Fat Guy pulls out a glock 18 and sends 3 shots towards harry all shooting him in the chest instantly killing him.
Gangster Fat Guy: God was my brudda that's your payback.
Gangster Fat Guy puts away his glock takes out a mic Gangster fat guy starts singing to this beat https://youtu.be/lHuQlCXvXfk.
Gangster Fat Guy: “Yu Yu, My life hard, I can't afford lard, I once was barred, EWEEEEEEE, I smoke tea, I'm green.”
The communist party enters
Every communist(10): Smell us.
Goku enters
Goku: no why would I do that.
Gangster fat guy shoots them all once in the head killing them all immediately.
Gangster fat guy: Alright we need to work together.
Goku: i know.
They both walk out.
Sign Holder Sprints across the stage holding a sign that says “Many years later 2198 december 2 in An alleyway by fred meyers and wendys”.
Nazi Elmo: I finally figured it out HAHAHAHA gokus spell has been destroyed.
Goku enters
Goku: Nope, you dumb.
Goku blasts nazi Elmo killing him.
Gangster fat guy: Nice.
They both leave, Sentient water bottle enters. Sentient water bottle peices together nazi Elmo. Nazi Elmo awakes Goku reenters, Goku blasts the waterbottle and nazi Elmo again.
Goku: Ha you thought. Also I love Elijah snodgrass and u/crunchedspine (just in case someone copy pastes without reading)
Ash ketchum enters.
Ash: God I need to catch them all.
Goku: Why?
Ash grabs out a pokeball and throws it at goku, Goku is crunched into the pokeball
Ash: YES.
A mage enters
Mage: I have healed someone
Ash: I CHOSE YOU GOKU.
Goku: AHHHHHH.
Goku comes out of the ball and shoots a laser at the mage. Mage dies.
Mage: HOW COULD YOU AHHHHHHHH!!
Ash: good going goku.
Goku: The taxes won't pay themself.
Goku takes his fedora and walks out the door, Ash falls to the ground shaking and crying.
Ash: Why do I live!
Ash picks up spanky's dead corpse and eats him
Ash(With his mouth full): MMmf So good MMMMf.
Ash takes out a torch and burn his eyes out and dies, Sonic enters.
Sonic: my numbers has made it too 500,000,000,000,000 sold but now i have a broken back and a fatal disease.
Hulk enters, Hulk smashes sonic to death, The kraken enters.
Kraken: I WILL SMACK YOU TO DEATH.
Gangster fat guy enters.
Gangster fat guy: What?
Gangster fat guy shoots the kraken The kraken dies leaving ink on the ground, Christian enters.
Christian: hello my name is christian.
Christian comes to terms with his fatal decisions and jumps off the stage killing himself
gangster fat guy: hi bruddas.
Gangster fat guy gets a parasite.
Gangster fat guy: AAAAHHHHH MY BRAIN.
Gangster fat guy shoots the parasite.
Gangster fat guy: I win like usual, But i love hulk.
Gangster fat guy blushes.
Hulk: You do?
Gangster fat guy: yes.
Hulk smashes gangster fat guy to death hulk was so sad he dies, Dash sears enters.
Dash: Where is it?! Where is he?!
Dash stabs himself in the stomach and dies, A cleric enters.
Cleric: i will heal you.
Cleric heals gangster fat guy and then dies from using all of power.
Gangster fat guy: thanks pops.
A nissan altima car enters and seems confused about the death.
Car: But why would that happen.
The car explodes
Gangster fat guy: My name is pete.
Pete: I will find goku.
Pete goes out the door and 5 seconds later pulls out. Goku and Knuckles enter.
Knuckles: Give the pick-le or get the stick-le.
Pete: pickles are not round these parts.
Goku blasts Knuckles into the sun, Knuckles survives.
Knuckles: You tried you apple pies.
Knuckles folds his spine. Knuckles: I don't think I can take this emotional trauma.
Knuckles runs off crying, a little while later goku starts talking to break the silence, worms crawl at his feet and enter.
Goku: The worms still talk to me.
The Worms: No we don't.
Goku: Nevermind.
Pete: What were you saying.
Goku: Nothing just dont worry about it.
Pete: Ever since I was a kid I was into crime.
Goku: Don't worry my friend we will get through this.
Pete starts crying and sits on Goku’s lap.
Goku: Kinda burns.
Pete: Did you hear that.
Pete actually heard nothing he just really felt like lying, Worms leave.
Goku: No.
Pete: we have to go.
Goku: Your just wrong.
Pete shoots goku in the chest, Goku runs off bleeding out, Pete leaves, Goku enters.
Goku: I thought I loved him he was a brother.
Knuckles enters.
Knuckles: The chamber clangs
Gangster pete and goku enters a chamber everyone else is left behind, There is a ghost and its nazi Elmo, Nazi Elmo comes back to life.
Goku: this is too creepy guys lets skip.
A While later Knuckles, nazi Elmo, pete and goku all enter the dollar store.
Knuckles: I'm buying a cap no cap though.
Knuckles walks to the register, sam is at the register.
Sam: costs 40$.
Knuckles: no money.
Sam: ok.
They leave, curtains close news reporter enters
Reporter: breaking news local clerk sam is dead!
The reporter leaves. Curtains open to a skate park. Goku enters, Goku’s chest is very revealed Princess peach enters as well.
Princess peach: Your Mega hot!!!
Princess peach loves goku so much she dies.
Goku: Why does everyone i love leave me?
Goku starts crying, goku looks up.
Goku: Alright guys we have to find the key.
They all start skating 5 sec later.
Goku: guys?!
Goku looks into the sky. Knuckles enters
Knuckles: wassup bruv.
Goku forms an energy circle around him, pete and knuckles he starts to scream as he uses energy.
Goku: AAAHHHHH!
Knuckles: It's a nuke!
Pete: we must go to China to escape, it's the only way!
Goku teleports pete, knuckles, and himself to China with his superpowers.
Goku: we are in China now.
China guy enters.
China guy: 死了不然.
Goku: i will not.
China guy takes out a katana. Goku blasts china guy. China guy deflects the blast with his sword. China guy dashes towards goku and swings, Goku dodges.
Goku: You think you can beat me?
China guy: 是.
Goku blasts china guy and he runs away bleeding, Knuckles starts selling towels rapidly.
Knuckles: they are cheap!
Pete pulls out a gun and shoots his feet.
Pete: if I can't walk i'll fly.
Pete flies into the air.
Goku: Where do you think he is now.
Knuckles: We'll never know.
Knuckles starts being a socialist.
Goku’s Kneecap: I am back.
Goku takes his new kneecap and shoves it into his kneecap-less knee, Smacky The Monkey enters.
Pete: OoooH yeaahhh baby (groaning)
Pete eats Smacky the monkey cause he is hungry.
Pete: Oh snap, I need some salt.
Pete leaves to retrieve it.
Goku: We gotta head to the village for food.
The curtains close opening on the village. Goku, and the fisherman enter.
Fisherman: I ain't got no food today, but I got some salt.
Goku: I'll take some brie cheese.
Fisherman: That'll be one bitcoin.
Goku: GREAT! That's the exact amount of money I own!
Fisherman: Gimme the coin or we “might” slice you fingers.
Goku: My guy, Chill.
Goku hands over a bitcoin. Hulk enters.
The Incredible Hulk: Did you hear about last night?
Goku: Only sometimes adventurers fonder the dark depths (An old man with a long past voice)
Curtains close. A desk gets pushed out from behind the curtains. News Host 1 enters. News Host 2 enters. Breaking news music plays.
Host 1: BREAKING NEWS (YELLING)!
The lights start flashing. Host 1 has an epileptic seizure
Host 2: Well ha ha. He IS from Florida.
Laugh track plays.
Host 1: That's all for today! See you next time!!!
Curtains close than open to a darkly lit stage, KatB320, Abraham Lincoln, Bambie_G, Backup Singer1 and 2 enter.
Bambie_G: Brothers, I have come here today to sing the song of the holy way. Thou shalt never disrespect the one true living man.
Abraham Lincoln: I came here to eat not to listen. I would not approve.
Kat-B320: i approve.
` BambiG_exe starts rapping.
Eyy i smack people, Put cheese in the tree hole, Leprechauns nose as sharp as an icicle.
Bambie_G and singers exit, A cult enters.
The Cult Members: WE ARE HERE TO COLLECT OUR NEW MEMBER!
Cultist: I WILL CHOSE ON THE COUNT OF THE THREE Bushes!!
Cult Members: CHOOSE CHOOSE CHOOSE CHOOSE CHOOSE!!!
Cultist: I HAVE CHOSEN THE FORTUNATE PERSON!!! BOW BEFORE ME OR PERRISH!!!
Cult: I'm only here because this play has to be slightly normal for my editors.
Abraham Lincoln decides he is a terrible character and evaporates.
Kat-B320: sigh He was a good son. But things do happen. Kat-B320 falls to the ground and dies. David Dobrick’s body is thrown onto the stage, Goku kills all remaining people other than fishermen, Anime cosplayer enters. Wearing a naruto costume.
Cosplayer: OH YEAH I LOVE NARUTO!
/crunchedspine//
Goku: why are you dressed up as me.
Cosplayer: I love you.
Goku: You come with us now.
The curtains close.
Curtains Open revealing a church. The Pope, Goku, knuckles, Dentist, pete, and cosplayer all come into scene. They all stare at a selected person from the audience (Even when speaking).
Pope: I am the pope.
Pope: I am christian.
Goku: without a doubt I do believe that ( Speaking while Pope is talking )
Sign Holder runs across the stage holding a sign that says “Ling has joined the game”. Ling enters.
Ling: I am Ling, you can trust me.
Ling bombs the stage.
Dentist: TEETH TIME! (Screaming as loud as possible (With microphone at maximum volume.)
Dentist puts rubber bands in his teeth and chokes to death on them, Lagoona blue enters.
Lagoona: SLAP ME NOW!
Cosplayer pulls out a staff with a blue gem at the top Cosplayer blasts lagoona with 500 megahertz of something, Goku has a divorce with his dad.
Goku: Why?
Goku blasts lagoona killing her. Staples start falling from the air. A math guy enters.
Math guy: division.
Goku: Its like me and my family.
Math guy: Who are you?
Goku: I am goku.
Goku: Oh my.
An old grandma comes in holding cookies.
Old grandma: I like this.
Knuckles: Let me have a tasty munchy!
Knuckles jumps into math guy killing him. Math Guy dies, Ash reanimates.
Ash: I feel it so good.
Ash has a seizure and dies the set turns dark as every character goes on the stage and start muttering as nazi elmo arises from the crowd raised up on a chair. everything freezes. A light hones in on an old man in the corner.
Old man: And that's the story of my bar mitzvah.
Lights fade music starts as the actors take a bow and exit in various directions around the theatre.
Pete's last name decides its nuvlegiemer
submitted by CrunchedSpine to u/CrunchedSpine [link] [comments]

My Ethereum Prediction From 2017. Still Think I was Wrong?

Link to the original post is at the bottom.

Ethereum made one mistake, talking about its future contributions before people could fully perceive them. for anyone that believes ethereum is undervalued it is my opinion you cannot comprehend abstract ideas or conceptualize what ehtereum and blockchain technology actually is.
cryptocurrencies as a digital asset are cool, fun to play with and not typically a bad investment as they are based off the value of bitcoin.
bitcoin as a form of currency has its place and will more than likely ( by means of Litecoin ) aquire a 50 billion dollar market share of cross border money transfer services current rates require 10%+ of the sent value. litecoin does this for about 1%-10% of that. (0.01%-1% and in actuality less in most cases ) divide 84 million coins (max available at production end) by 500 billion (yearly cross border money transfers) roughly $4500 per coin is the minimum value of each coin to cover just one year of money transfers. rest assured it will be higher.
ethereum is efficiency , it is balance, equality, cooperation, innovation, security, and accountability. Ethereum is progress in the name of the greater good of all mankind not just the elite. Ethereum is a social Democracy
all of this sounds nice .... which is what Ethereum promises. people need proof before investing. and that is why you will be just a moment to late. because once it's a sure thing everyone will be investing.
blockchain technology is the real use of digital assets. imagine the following, all media content can be easily published on the blockchain providing two advantages, instant alert to its previous creation if applicable (through the entire database being accessible for instant search and comparison of all published media ) instant encryption ensuring piracy is lessened ( future application software will not be downloadable its code will exist in the ethereum "cloud based" network) the media can be viewed, shared, or done with as is desired, but only to the limits permitted by its creator and only when accessed through a supported ethereum network affiliate using ethereums "Token" to powe rthe software allowing the creator of the content to share their creation. furthermore the creator is capable of issuing their own proprietary tokens that allow them to essentially grant access to their creation to anyone in posession of their "token"
The reason that you cannot comprehend Ethereum is the same reason your parents dont understand bitcoin, why your grandma will never comprehend the internet, why her mother doubted electricity, and her mother didnt see how coal could move a 50 ton train. that reason ? you are all just one generation behind in respect to grasping the concept, for which you have nothing to base its technology off of Ethereum is the next step in innovation. we all wondered what form the next leap in progress would take every great leap in technology is not recognized immediately but when initiated they cannot be stopped. the chain cannot be stopped it just moves forward. building on every advancement that comes before it.
whatare these apps ?.....
medical information will be on ethereum network.... the entire medical database of the world will be connected. acting as a living network updated instantaneously patients symptoms will have quantifiable values, vital statistics will be available for every patient that has ever had the symptoms that any given patient comes in with. by inputting the data of a patient the network uses event related probability to calculate a given set of all possible cases where the data matched with other patients ( millions of variables are considered in an instant.) to diagnose and treat patients according to the most succesful course of action as time goes on after years of trial and error the data will eventually reach a near 100% success rate. faster than we ever thought possible.
Television. cable will end see my remaining thoughts down below for why. netflix style content will replace it. tokens will be distributed. by movie producers meaning a handful of affiliates have access to the rights to distribute them. and netflix will require you to buy its token to have access.
pandora style radio tokens
gps tokens,
but why ?
by making specific tokens account for specific services we can prevent inflation. we also give a value to our money supply. remember when we had money backed by gold ? a dollar could be exchanged for its value in gold. well thats your answer. we have returned to a barter system where i can trade my own services for your services or a future promise that you can at any time redeem said token for my service, or trade for other services. ultimately our money can be thought of as bitcoin and the gold is all other coins. fiat or at least a hard money currency will always exist although two things will occur because of that. people will not be as likely to keep large amounts of money outside of the system as it will depreciate. in most cases over long periods of time. take 10 dollars out for a year and when you come back to buy the equivelent in bitcoin you will likely receive less than if it stayd in the system. where as hard currency versions of bitcoin will retain their value. that theory should hold until 2041 when all coins have been mined and by that time i would bet everyone has jumpedon board. and global currencies will have traded in their fiatmoney to make huge gains from the appreciation of bitcoin integration. i believe bitcoin will be more than an investment it is a replacement as well as a return to the gold standard.
if my outlook holds true then wewill all get an identity token. with that token you can vote on everything from what to spend the pto funds on to what roads need to be built in your city to whether that 150 million dollars should go towards researching the effects of mustard gas on purple monkeys or if it might be better served providing 2 and a half million children with water that hasnt been filled with biological waste. or maybe to give power to 20 million human beings that have lived their entire life without it.
we will have a global currency (bitcoin) and all goods and services will add to its overall marketcap. one services sucess adds to the value of all services. if you do roofing in the the summer your toens will be more valuable. if people cant afford your service then they can contribute to the mining of that service if you allow it. if yoou want to support a cause like funding research on autism then you can go and buy their coin. their service is to find a cure and if its important to people then they will continue to do so. if it is meaningless we as a society will not buy their coin and they will have to find a new job, or keep it as a hobby. either way its not up to a group of people that find it unnecessary it is the decision of the entire world as a collective entity.
many will read what i am about to say and it will cause everything i have said to be no longer looked at as credible. for this i am sorry that you are unable to think of anyone in this world but yourself, and it is people like you that have brought us to this point. socialism always failed in the worlds eyes as did communism. on paper the greatest civilization and its structure are ones in which people work together and do not worry about accumulating wealth in order to live in excess. the wealth is distributed equally, some positions which are harder to fill or require more skills will in the end offer higher pay for their tokens but only because there will be a supply and demand effect created due to its nature of less people being capable of supplying that service/good. on the flip side i believe that by the same token certain positions will ultimately demand a far higher pay. do you want to clean shit out of a porta potty ? probably not so when you need someone else to do it guess what you are going to pay that guy/girl exactly what it costs to have someone do it or you can do it yourself either way supply and demand dictates the value and the most agreed upon value between the provider and the consumer will prevail.




Card

submitted by buybitcoinsites_com to u/buybitcoinsites_com [link] [comments]

Electroneum and Who is Richard Ells? My 1-on-1.

Earlier this week, during the 2018 BCI Summit in New York, I had the pleasure and honor of meeting and speaking with Richard Ells. It is not the same as watching someone on the screen I assure you. After exchanging formalities and introductions I looked into his eyes and I knew: “He's the kind of guy you would just want to do Business with.” And now I will tell you why.
I had several conversations with Mr. Ells throughout the course of The Summit and he did not disappoint, even when asked difficult questions. Richard Ells is a very hard-working individual working 7 days a week and firing on all cylinders. He has dedicated himself to this project and to the Electroneum community, so next time you want to ask the silly question or post a negative comment please think twice. Mr. Ells is working around the clock trying to deliver everything that he said he would (especially and even during the times of extreme pressure).
Here is what I saw in DirectoCEO Richard Ells; who he really is, and why I believe he can and will make Electroneum a successful project. Blockchain, cryptocurrency, and decentralized economies are changing the way humanity interacts with the world. We are talking about a change on a huge scale. Being involved in the crypto space can be overwhelming at times. Although crypto trading can be fun and enjoyable, having a healthy and balanced lifestyle is very important. In today’s dynamic world of information and misinformation it is hard to distinguish what is real and true and what is not. There are over 1600 cryptocurrencies and more are added everyday, so how can one know which if any are going to be here in 5 years? Due diligence alone is no longer going to cut it, you have to go out and meet the people/person behind the project. Only then can you be certain that you have made a sound decision based on your own research. I have been involved in crypto projects for a while; finding the diamonds in the rough is not an easy task. Knowing what we know today, many of you would love to go back in time and get in BTC or ETH when they were just starting.
Electroneum is your most likely opportunity to be part of a project that has as much potential, if not more, as the very best BTC. I just lost half of you there; the half that continue reading will be rewarded. I know it is not enough for me to say Electroneum is one of the most exciting and new projects available today, and during this market correction there is ample opportunity to pick up Electroenum (ETN) at highly discounted rates. So please allow me to explain why I believe Electroneum is THE diamond you are looking for and why Richard Ells is THE Man for the Job.
I have done an extensive research on the project itself but more importantly on the man at the helm – Richard Ells – Director of Electroneum. What separates Mr. Ells from other crypto projects and their teams is important as most people are very skeptical about bitcoin and crypto in general. So what makes him so special? In the world of cryptos you do not have to be the strongest or the fastest: what you need is the ability to take action and execute on your vision with the right amount talent and support, and more importantly passion and motivation. There are few small groups of people that will dispute my finding and question my research, but I assure you that none of them spent any time doing any research, let alone go out and meet one-on-one with Richard Ells. These are the same small disgruntled individuals that spread negative and often false information on the internet about Electroneum and the project itself.
There are millions of companies out there in the world, each and every one of them is run by a group of individuals, CEOs, and Board of Directors. What makes Richard an excellent Director is that he is a calculated risk taker who takes action, ready to dive deep into the future of uncertainty. The cryptosphere certainly has its fair share of fear, uncertainty, and doubt (FUD). But not all risk takers are successful entrepreneurs. Richard Ells is a successful business owner willing to risk his name, time and money on the unknowns. I learned he also keeps resources and he plans ahead, keeping plenty of reserves for dealing with the unforeseen. Let me be perfectly clear: Richard Ells has already taken measures so that Electroneum is fully prepared for the regulatory changing landscape in the event major changes should occur.
When evaluating risk, a successful person like Richard Ells will ask if the risk is worth the cost of his career, his name, time, family and money. His intense focus on and faith in the Electroneum project may be misconstrued as stubbornness. I can tell you he is 100% dedicated and committed to the success of Electroenum, often working 7 days a week clocking nearly 100 hours, to the point where his eyes are so red and puffy that he can no longer see (I’m not making this up, this is literally how hard the gentleman works).
One might ask how can I be so sure that Richard Ells and Electroneum will succeed, well the honest answer is it’s impossible to know. If we knew all the answers to the future we would not be here right now. Analyzing and understanding the potential of a project in the crypto world can be both tricky and frustrating. There are no quick and dirty methods of analysis that can forecast or spell out the future of Electroneum. There are however some parameters that can help you understand where the project is most likely to go and how to gauge if the coin is a good potential investment. Some understanding of the crypto market is always better than no understanding which is unfortunately often the case in today’s world. The media have been painting a negative picture all around bitcoin and most other crypto projects, so how can you tell if this is the one? Mass Adoption, Patent Pending - Instant Cryptocurrency Payments - and Micro Subscription Payments are just a few reasons why Electroneum is THE coin that may turn this market upside down flip the script on this space, paving the way for mass adoption.
Richard Ells has the business plan, the backbone of any serious company, and he has the auxiliary plan and contingencies in place in order to prevent the unthinkable. This plan is about building a business from scratch while managing limited resources including time, money and personal relationships. Trying to plan for everything and having a ready solution in place for all possible issues and scenarios is not possible. Electroneum had experienced some hiccups along the way, and every time it has risen like a phoenix and pushed forward. Electroneum will continue to push forward, paving the way and becoming successful because Richard Ells is NOT going after the 1% that are in crypto today; he is going after the 99% who are not involved at all.
The road to Mass Adoption will not be an easy journey and it will not be a parabolic shot to the moon. If you have jumped into the Electroneum with unrealistic expectations because you have watched a few videos, hoping for overnight 1000x returns and instantly becoming a millionaire, then you have not done your due diligence and you can only blame yourself not Richard Ells or Electroneum. Predicting cryptocurrency prices is a fool’s errand and there is no algorithm or a computer that can accurately predict anything in the crypto world. Electroneum is no different, it follows certain standards like Bitcoin Standard due to pairing on exchanges. This however will soon change as the framework for new regulation is being explored every day, and we can further expect to see this landscape change as the SEC and other regulatory agencies in the world begin regulating the buying and selling of cryptocurrencies in very real ways.
There are many companies in the world that have been involved in “Instant Payments” but not Crypto Instant Payments. Richard Ells and Electroneum have created something that didn't already exist, patented it globally (their patent covers all cryptocurrencies and even allows Electroneum to do instant payments with other cryptos), and thereby significantly improved an existing product after experiencing frustration with the way it worked. This week at The Summit Electronuem demonstrated the instant payment system in action – it was impressive. In about 2 weeks, on July 1st, Electroneum is opening their vendor application for vendors to start accepting instant Electroneum (ETN) in a live environment. Following this period the general release will commence! Remaining unaware of changing market needs, competitor moves and other external factors can cause even great products to fail. Visa and Mastercard have been hard at work to create a system of Instant Payments and to shorten your time at the terminal (they even stopped asking for your signature).
Electroneum’s Crypto Instant Payment system introduced by Richard Ells at the 2018 BCI Summit in New York “Is a groundbreaking technology in the cryptocurrency industry that bridges the gap between blockchain’s decentralization and the modern world’s fast payment technology.” Mass Adoption will revolutionize the world of crypto use and spending and allow the poor and the unbanked in of the Developing World to enter this ecosystem. “Price Waterhouse Coopers predicts this market to be as large as USD 3 trillion.” There are others that say 20 trillion.
If you are looking to enter the crypto market, there is no better time than now as crypto is still a baby. Large corporations, the general public, governments and investment firms are all watching this space closely and only dipping their toes into this market. Because of Richard Ells’ work ethic, his ability to take action swiftly, his dedicated team, and the massive developments already underway – I believe Electroneum stands to become THE crypto for the people.
I’ll leave you with this as you think about the crypto space:
The lion is the king of the jungle; the king of his domain. The lion is not the tallest, not the largest, not the heaviest, and not the smartest nor the most intelligent animal in the jungle. Yet, the lion is the king of the jungle. What makes all these animals respect the lion so much? He takes action and executes on the way he thinks.
M.
https://preview.redd.it/hqgbpszql2411.jpg?width=960&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1bb4f62c05bd4407e98302eecfeb92f6069d573e
submitted by M-Systems to Electroneum [link] [comments]

Electroneum (ETN) and Who is Richard Ells? My 1-on-1.

Electroneum (ETN) and Who is Richard Ells? My 1-on-1.
Hello Crypto Experts !
I know I am probably going to get flamed by posting this here, but before you call me a name or point a finger at the price of this coin and tell me it is a "s..t coin" please consider the current market conditions and the value of all cryptos including the top 20. I believe in actions and going out into the field yourself, meeting the people behind the projects is the only way to know for sure. What ever the coin or project you support try to meet the team if it is possible, if there is no team or person behind it then you know what sort of coin/project you are dealing with. Ladies and Gents - I hope you find something useful in this write-up. Stay open minded folks ! This coin is 9 months old give it some time, look at all the BTC madness taking place right now.
Few weeks ago, during the 2018 BCI Summit in New York, I had the pleasure and honor of meeting and speaking with Richard Ells President/CEO of Electroneum (ETN). It is not the same as watching someone on the screen I assure you. After exchanging formalities and introductions I looked into his eyes and I knew: “He's the kind of guy you would just want to do Business with.” And now I will tell you why.
I had several conversations with Mr. Ells throughout the course of The Summit and he did not disappoint, even when asked difficult questions. Richard Ells is a very hard-working individual working 7 days a week and firing on all cylinders. He has dedicated himself to this project and to the Electroneum community, so next time you want to ask the silly question or post a negative comment please think twice. Mr. Ells is working around the clock trying to deliver everything that he said he would (especially and even during the times of extreme pressure).
Here is what I saw in DirectoCEO Richard Ells; who he really is, and why I believe he can and will make Electroneum a successful project. Blockchain, cryptocurrency, and decentralized economies are changing the way humanity interacts with the world. We are talking about a change on a huge scale. Being involved in the crypto space can be overwhelming at times. Although crypto trading can be fun and enjoyable, having a healthy and balanced lifestyle is very important. In today’s dynamic world of information and misinformation it is hard to distinguish what is real and true and what is not. There are over 1600 cryptocurrencies and more are added everyday, so how can one know which if any are going to be here in 5 years? Due diligence alone is no longer going to cut it, you have to go out and meet the people/person behind the project. Only then can you be certain that you have made a sound decision based on your own research. I have been involved in crypto projects for a while; finding the diamonds in the rough is not an easy task. Knowing what we know today, many of you would love to go back in time and get in BTC or ETH when they were just starting.
Electroneum is your most likely opportunity to be part of a project that has as much potential, if not more, as the very best BTC. I just lost half of you there; the half that continue reading will be rewarded. I know it is not enough for me to say Electroneum is one of the most exciting and new projects available today, and during this market correction there is ample opportunity to pick up Electroenum (ETN) at highly discounted rates. So please allow me to explain why I believe Electroneum is THE diamond you are looking for and why Richard Ells is THE Man for the Job.
I have done an extensive research on the project itself but more importantly on the man at the helm – Richard Ells – Director of Electroneum. What separates Mr. Ells from other crypto projects and their teams is important as most people are very skeptical about bitcoin and crypto in general. So what makes him so special? In the world of cryptos you do not have to be the strongest or the fastest: what you need is the ability to take action and execute on your vision with the right amount talent and support, and more importantly passion and motivation. There are few small groups of people that will dispute my finding and question my research, but I assure you that none of them spent any time doing any research, let alone go out and meet one-on-one with Richard Ells. These are the same small disgruntled individuals that spread negative and often false information on the internet about Electroneum and the project itself.
There are millions of companies out there in the world, each and every one of them is run by a group of individuals, CEOs, and Board of Directors. What makes Richard an excellent Director is that he is a calculated risk taker who takes action, ready to dive deep into the future of uncertainty. The cryptosphere certainly has its fair share of fear, uncertainty, and doubt (FUD). But not all risk takers are successful entrepreneurs. Richard Ells is a successful business owner willing to risk his name, time and money on the unknowns. I learned he also keeps resources and he plans ahead, keeping plenty of reserves for dealing with the unforeseen. Let me be perfectly clear: Richard Ells has already taken measures so that Electroneum is fully prepared for the regulatory changing landscape in the event major changes should occur.
When evaluating risk, a successful person like Richard Ells will ask if the risk is worth the cost of his career, his name, time, family and money. His intense focus on and faith in the Electroneum project may be misconstrued as stubbornness. I can tell you he is 100% dedicated and committed to the success of Electroenum, often working 7 days a week clocking nearly 100 hours, to the point where his eyes are so red and puffy that he can no longer see (I’m not making this up, this is literally how hard the gentleman works).
One might ask how can I be so sure that Richard Ells and Electroneum will succeed, well the honest answer is it’s impossible to know. If we knew all the answers to the future we would not be here right now. Analyzing and understanding the potential of a project in the crypto world can be both tricky and frustrating. There are no quick and dirty methods of analysis that can forecast or spell out the future of Electroneum. There are however some parameters that can help you understand where the project is most likely to go and how to gauge if the coin is a good potential investment. Some understanding of the crypto market is always better than no understanding which is unfortunately often the case in today’s world. The media have been painting a negative picture all around bitcoin and most other crypto projects, so how can you tell if this is the one? Mass Adoption, Patent Pending - Instant Cryptocurrency Payments - and Micro Subscription Payments are just a few reasons why Electroneum is THE coin that may turn this market upside down flip the script on this space, paving the way for mass adoption.
For those of you who are interested in Instant Payments you can read more details here as it was just released:
https://twitter.com/electroneum/status/1013184289721212929
Richard Ells has the business plan, the backbone of any serious company, and he has the auxiliary plan and contingencies in place in order to prevent the unthinkable. This plan is about building a business from scratch while managing limited resources including time, money and personal relationships. Trying to plan for everything and having a ready solution in place for all possible issues and scenarios is not possible. Electroneum had experienced some hiccups along the way, and every time it has risen like a phoenix and pushed forward. Electroneum will continue to push forward, paving the way and becoming successful because Richard Ells is NOT going after the 1% that are in crypto today; he is going after the 99% who are not involved at all.
The road to Mass Adoption will not be an easy journey and it will not be a parabolic shot to the moon. If you have jumped into the Electroneum with unrealistic expectations because you have watched a few videos, hoping for overnight 1000x returns and instantly becoming a millionaire, then you have not done your due diligence and you can only blame yourself not Richard Ells or Electroneum. Predicting cryptocurrency prices is a fool’s errand and there is no algorithm or a computer that can accurately predict anything in the crypto world. Electroneum is no different, it follows certain standards like Bitcoin Standard due to pairing on exchanges. This however will soon change as the framework for new regulation is being explored every day, and we can further expect to see this landscape change as the SEC and other regulatory agencies in the world begin regulating the buying and selling of cryptocurrencies in very real ways.
There are many companies in the world that have been involved in “Instant Payments” but not Crypto Instant Payments. Richard Ells and Electroneum have created something that didn't already exist, patented it globally (their patent covers all cryptocurrencies and even allows Electroneum to do instant payments with other cryptos), and thereby significantly improved an existing product after experiencing frustration with the way it worked. This week at The Summit Electronuem demonstrated the instant payment system in action – it was impressive. In about 2 weeks, on July 1st, Electroneum is opening their vendor application for vendors to start accepting instant Electroneum (ETN) in a live environment. Following this period the general release will commence! Remaining unaware of changing market needs, competitor moves and other external factors can cause even great products to fail. Visa and Mastercard have been hard at work to create a system of Instant Payments and to shorten your time at the terminal (they even stopped asking for your signature).
Electroneum’s Crypto Instant Payment system introduced by Richard Ells at the 2018 BCI Summit in New York “Is a groundbreaking technology in the cryptocurrency industry that bridges the gap between blockchain’s decentralization and the modern world’s fast payment technology.” Mass Adoption will revolutionize the world of crypto use and spending and allow the poor and the unbanked in of the Developing World to enter this ecosystem. “Price Waterhouse Coopers predicts this market to be as large as USD 3 trillion.” There are others that say 20 trillion.
If you are looking to enter the crypto market, there is no better time than now as crypto is still a baby. Large corporations, the general public, governments and investment firms are all watching this space closely and only dipping their toes into this market. Because of Richard Ells’ work ethic, his ability to take action swiftly, his dedicated team, and the massive developments already underway – I believe Electroneum stands to become THE crypto for the people.
I’ll leave you with this as you think about the crypto space:
The lion is the king of the jungle; the king of his domain. The lion is not the tallest, not the largest, not the heaviest, and not the smartest nor the most intelligent animal in the jungle. Yet, the lion is the king of the jungle. What makes all these animals respect the lion so much? He takes action and executes on the way he thinks.
I know it is a long read and if you got all the way down here then at least you are still open minded as there many in the cryptospace that will just call me a shill or that I was paid. Well no one paid me a damn thing and I have other coins that I intend to talk about in the same manner 0x, DBC, and few others.
Thanks M.
https://preview.redd.it/7qlgzs4c9d711.jpg?width=960&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ca9abcbfc6a9dba9554514bbaa146df877dc5bce
submitted by M-Systems to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

BIP39 Words list

Nothing special, just a copy of the current list (for the future) of what can be found at https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/mastebip-0039/english.txt
abandon,ability,able,about,above,absent,absorb,abstract,absurd,abuse,access,accident,account,accuse,achieve,acid,acoustic,acquire,across,act,action,actor,actress,actual,adapt,add,addict,address,adjust,admit,adult,advance,advice,aerobic,affair,afford,afraid,again,age,agent,agree,ahead,aim,air,airport,aisle,alarm,album,alcohol,alert,alien,all,alley,allow,almost,alone,alpha,already,also,alter,always,amateur,amazing,among,amount,amused,analyst,anchor,ancient,anger,angle,angry,animal,ankle,announce,annual,another,answer,antenna,antique,anxiety,any,apart,apology,appear,apple,approve,april,arch,arctic,area,arena,argue,arm,armed,armor,army,around,arrange,arrest,arrive,arrow,art,artefact,artist,artwork,ask,aspect,assault,asset,assist,assume,asthma,athlete,atom,attack,attend,attitude,attract,auction,audit,august,aunt,author,auto,autumn,average,avocado,avoid,awake,aware,away,awesome,awful,awkward,axis,baby,bachelor,bacon,badge,bag,balance,balcony,ball,bamboo,banana,banner,bar,barely,bargain,barrel,base,basic,basket,battle,beach,bean,beauty,because,become,beef,before,begin,behave,behind,believe,below,belt,bench,benefit,best,betray,better,between,beyond,bicycle,bid,bike,bind,biology,bird,birth,bitter,black,blade,blame,blanket,blast,bleak,bless,blind,blood,blossom,blouse,blue,blur,blush,board,boat,body,boil,bomb,bone,bonus,book,boost,border,boring,borrow,boss,bottom,bounce,box,boy,bracket,brain,brand,brass,brave,bread,breeze,brick,bridge,brief,bright,bring,brisk,broccoli,broken,bronze,broom,brother,brown,brush,bubble,buddy,budget,buffalo,build,bulb,bulk,bullet,bundle,bunker,burden,burger,burst,bus,business,busy,butter,buyer,buzz,cabbage,cabin,cable,cactus,cage,cake,call,calm,camera,camp,can,canal,cancel,candy,cannon,canoe,canvas,canyon,capable,capital,captain,car,carbon,card,cargo,carpet,carry,cart,case,cash,casino,castle,casual,cat,catalog,catch,category,cattle,caught,cause,caution,cave,ceiling,celery,cement,census,century,cereal,certain,chair,chalk,champion,change,chaos,chapter,charge,chase,chat,cheap,check,cheese,chef,cherry,chest,chicken,chief,child,chimney,choice,choose,chronic,chuckle,chunk,churn,cigar,cinnamon,circle,citizen,city,civil,claim,clap,clarify,claw,clay,clean,clerk,clever,click,client,cliff,climb,clinic,clip,clock,clog,close,cloth,cloud,clown,club,clump,cluster,clutch,coach,coast,coconut,code,coffee,coil,coin,collect,color,column,combine,come,comfort,comic,common,company,concert,conduct,confirm,congress,connect,consider,control,convince,cook,cool,copper,copy,coral,core,corn,correct,cost,cotton,couch,country,couple,course,cousin,cover,coyote,crack,cradle,craft,cram,crane,crash,crater,crawl,crazy,cream,credit,creek,crew,cricket,crime,crisp,critic,crop,cross,crouch,crowd,crucial,cruel,cruise,crumble,crunch,crush,cry,crystal,cube,culture,cup,cupboard,curious,current,curtain,curve,cushion,custom,cute,cycle,dad,damage,damp,dance,danger,daring,dash,daughter,dawn,day,deal,debate,debris,decade,december,decide,decline,decorate,decrease,deer,defense,define,defy,degree,delay,deliver,demand,demise,denial,dentist,deny,depart,depend,deposit,depth,deputy,derive,describe,desert,design,desk,despair,destroy,detail,detect,develop,device,devote,diagram,dial,diamond,diary,dice,diesel,diet,differ,digital,dignity,dilemma,dinner,dinosaur,direct,dirt,disagree,discover,disease,dish,dismiss,disorder,display,distance,divert,divide,divorce,dizzy,doctor,document,dog,doll,dolphin,domain,donate,donkey,donor,door,dose,double,dove,draft,dragon,drama,drastic,draw,dream,dress,drift,drill,drink,drip,drive,drop,drum,dry,duck,dumb,dune,during,dust,dutch,duty,dwarf,dynamic,eager,eagle,early,earn,earth,easily,east,easy,echo,ecology,economy,edge,edit,educate,effort,egg,eight,either,elbow,elder,electric,elegant,element,elephant,elevator,elite,else,embark,embody,embrace,emerge,emotion,employ,empower,empty,enable,enact,end,endless,endorse,enemy,energy,enforce,engage,engine,enhance,enjoy,enlist,enough,enrich,enroll,ensure,enter,entire,entry,envelope,episode,equal,equip,era,erase,erode,erosion,error,erupt,escape,essay,essence,estate,eternal,ethics,evidence,evil,evoke,evolve,exact,example,excess,exchange,excite,exclude,excuse,execute,exercise,exhaust,exhibit,exile,exist,exit,exotic,expand,expect,expire,explain,expose,express,extend,extra,eye,eyebrow,fabric,face,faculty,fade,faint,faith,fall,false,fame,family,famous,fan,fancy,fantasy,farm,fashion,fat,fatal,father,fatigue,fault,favorite,feature,february,federal,fee,feed,feel,female,fence,festival,fetch,fever,few,fiber,fiction,field,figure,file,film,filter,final,find,fine,finger,finish,fire,firm,first,fiscal,fish,fit,fitness,fix,flag,flame,flash,flat,flavor,flee,flight,flip,float,flock,floor,flower,fluid,flush,fly,foam,focus,fog,foil,fold,follow,food,foot,force,forest,forget,fork,fortune,forum,forward,fossil,foster,found,fox,fragile,frame,frequent,fresh,friend,fringe,frog,front,frost,frown,frozen,fruit,fuel,fun,funny,furnace,fury,future,gadget,gain,galaxy,gallery,game,gap,garage,garbage,garden,garlic,garment,gas,gasp,gate,gather,gauge,gaze,general,genius,genre,gentle,genuine,gesture,ghost,giant,gift,giggle,ginger,giraffe,girl,give,glad,glance,glare,glass,glide,glimpse,globe,gloom,glory,glove,glow,glue,goat,goddess,gold,good,goose,gorilla,gospel,gossip,govern,gown,grab,grace,grain,grant,grape,grass,gravity,great,green,grid,grief,grit,grocery,group,grow,grunt,guard,guess,guide,guilt,guitar,gun,gym,habit,hair,half,hammer,hamster,hand,happy,harbor,hard,harsh,harvest,hat,have,hawk,hazard,head,health,heart,heavy,hedgehog,height,hello,helmet,help,hen,hero,hidden,high,hill,hint,hip,hire,history,hobby,hockey,hold,hole,holiday,hollow,home,honey,hood,hope,horn,horror,horse,hospital,host,hotel,hour,hover,hub,huge,human,humble,humor,hundred,hungry,hunt,hurdle,hurry,hurt,husband,hybrid,ice,icon,idea,identify,idle,ignore,ill,illegal,illness,image,imitate,immense,immune,impact,impose,improve,impulse,inch,include,income,increase,index,indicate,indoor,industry,infant,inflict,inform,inhale,inherit,initial,inject,injury,inmate,inner,innocent,input,inquiry,insane,insect,inside,inspire,install,intact,interest,into,invest,invite,involve,iron,island,isolate,issue,item,ivory,jacket,jaguar,jar,jazz,jealous,jeans,jelly,jewel,job,join,joke,journey,joy,judge,juice,jump,jungle,junior,junk,just,kangaroo,keen,keep,ketchup,key,kick,kid,kidney,kind,kingdom,kiss,kit,